Federal Software Licenses:

Better Management Needed to Achieve Significant Savings Government-Wide

GAO-14-413: Published: May 22, 2014. Publicly Released: May 22, 2014.

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(202) 512-4456
chac@gao.gov

 

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What GAO Found

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the vast majority of agencies that GAO reviewed do not have adequate policies for managing software licenses. While OMB has a policy on a broader information technology (IT) management initiative that is intended to assist agencies in gathering information on their IT investments, including software licenses, it does not guide agencies in developing comprehensive license management policies. Regarding agencies, of the 24 major federal agencies, 2 have comprehensive policies that include the establishment of clear roles and central oversight authority for managing enterprise software license agreements, among other things; 18 have them but they are not comprehensive; and 4 have not developed any. The weaknesses in agencies' policies were due, in part, to the lack of a priority for establishing software license management practices and a lack of direction from OMB. Without an OMB directive and comprehensive policies, it will be difficult for the agencies to consistently and effectively manage software licenses.

Federal agencies are not adequately managing their software licenses because they generally do not follow leading practices in this area. The table lists the leading practices and the number of agencies that have fully, partially, or not implemented them.

24 Major Agencies' Implementation of Software License Management Leading Practices

Leading practice

Fully implemented

Partially implemented

Not implemented

Centralized management

4

15

5

Established software license inventory

2

20

2

Tracking and maintain inventory

0

20

4

Analyzing software license data

0

15

9

Providing sufficient training

0

5

19

Source: GAO analysis of agency data.

The inadequate implementation of leading practices in software license management was partially due to weaknesses in agencies' policies. As a result, agencies' oversight of software license spending is limited or lacking, and they may miss out on savings. The potential savings could be significant considering that, in fiscal year 2012, one major federal agency reported saving approximately $181 million by consolidating its enterprise license agreements even though its oversight process was ad hoc.

Given that agencies lack comprehensive software license inventories that are regularly tracked and maintained, GAO cannot accurately describe the most widely used software applications across the government, including the extent to which they were over and under purchased. Further, the data provided by agencies regarding their most widely used applications had limitations. Specifically, (1) agencies with data provided them in various ways, including by license count, usage, and cost; (2) the data provided by these agencies on the most widely used applications were not always complete; and (3) not all agencies had available data on the most widely used applications. Until weaknesses in how agencies manage licenses are addressed, the most widely used applications cannot be determined and thus opportunities for savings across the federal government may be missed.

Why GAO Did This Study

The federal government plans to spend at least $82 billion on IT products and services in fiscal year 2014, such as software licenses. Federal agencies engage in thousands of licensing agreements annually. Effective management of software licenses can help avoid purchasing too many licenses that result in unused software.

GAO was asked to review federal agencies' management of software licenses. GAO (1) assessed the extent to which OMB and federal agencies have appropriate policies on software license management, (2) determined the extent to which agencies adequately manage licenses, and (3) described agencies' most widely used software and extent to which they were over or under purchased. GAO assessed policies from 24 agencies and OMB against sound licensing policy measures. GAO also analyzed and compared agencies' software inventories and management controls to leading practices, and interviewed responsible officials. To identify sound licensing policy measures and leading practices, GAO interviewed recognized private sector and government software license management experts.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends OMB issue a directive to help guide agencies in managing licenses and that the 24 agencies improve their policies and practices for managing licenses. OMB disagreed with the need for a directive, but GAO believes it is needed, as discussed in the report. Most agencies generally agreed with the recommendations or had no comments.

For more information, contact Carol R. Cha at (202) 512-4456 or chac@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments, OMB disagreed with our statements that OMB and federal agencies need to improve policies on managing software licenses and noted that there are several management tools in place with respect to software license management. While we agree that OMB's initiatives collectively represent important management tools for agencies, they are not enough to guide agencies in developing comprehensive license management policies. Until agencies have sufficient direction from OMB, opportunities to systematically identify software license related cost savings across the federal government will likely continue to be missed. Therefore, we continue to believe that OMB should develop a directive that guides the agencies to ensure that they have appropriate policies. We will continue to work with OMB to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: The Director of the OMB should issue a directive to the agencies on developing comprehensive software licensing policies comprised of the seven elements identified in this report.

    Agency Affected: Executive Office of the President: Office of Management and Budget

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, Agriculture concurred with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In July 2015 the agency reported that it has taken initial steps and drafted comprehensive guidelines for software license management. The agency is evaluating whether to incorporate this drafted language into a new Departmental Regulation or to revise its existing guidelines. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  3. Status: Open

    Comments: Agriculture agreed with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In July 2015 the agency reported that it has taken initial steps and is currently evaluating existing regulations, as well as, considering the creation of new policies to provide for better coordination and integration of key personnel into the process to ensure that the majority of the agency's software license acquisitions are centrally purchased, distributed and managed. Additionally, the agency has established Strategic Sourcing teams to identify, analyze and make recommendations regarding a variety of commodities, including software publishers. Lessons learned will be used to develop requirements for software license management polices. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: Agriculture agreed with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In July 2015 the agency reported that it has taken initial steps and is currently using an internally developed license management tool, called License Management System to provide an inventory. The tool will be migrated to the agency's Software Asset Management tool by June 2016. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  5. Status: Open

    Comments: Agriculture agreed with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In July 2015 the agency reported that it has a Standard Operating Procedure for Software Management for its customer agencies. It also noted that it reviews the information maintained in the tools and produces reports for software license management. The Standard Operating Procedure will be updated once the License Management System is migrated to the Remedy Software Asset Management tool. The agency is in the process of implementing a Software Licensing Working Group with their customer agencies. This group will discuss ways to improve software management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  6. Status: Open

    Comments: Agriculture agreed with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In July 2015 the agency reported that it, based on customer agency requirements, targets specific enterprise software packages and other smaller deployed packages based on renewal dates. It added that (1) subject matter experts help ensure participation in improvements for the Software License Management Program, and (2) a Software Licensing Working Group discusses ways to identify cost savings. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  7. Status: Open

    Comments: Agriculture agreed with our recommendation and noted that it intended to develop and integrate into AgLearn, the Department's on-line training system, the appropriate software management training modules. In July 2015 the agency reported that it still agrees with this recommendation and will develop and integrate the Department's on-line training system, however to perform this training, the agency noted that it will need to implement other actions planned in support of recommendations 1 through 5, including establishing software license policies and improved software management practices. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  8. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  9. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  10. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  11. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  12. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  13. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the Department of Commerce had planned actions for all six of the recommendations. Commerce indicated that it would: (1) develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses, and (2) ensure that software license management training is provided to appropriate agency personnel. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  14. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense partially concurred with this recommendation to develop an agency wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses. DOD concurred that the policy for management of software licenses is necessary to address the weaknesses that GAO identified, however DOD did not concur that a centralized license management approach is appropriate for an agency their size. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by developing a business case analysis of alternative courses of actions for an enterprise software inventory reporting process. The outcome will determine the software inventory reporting process and identify high-level license management policy requirements. DOD also plans to draft guidance in collaboration with DOD Component CIOs beginning in Fiscal Year 2016. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  15. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense partially concurred with this recommendation. DOD concurred that the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses should be managed using an approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel, however DOD does not concur that a centralized license management approach is the most appropriate for an agency of the size and complexity of DOD. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by developing a business case analysis of alternative courses of actions for an enterprise software inventory reporting process. The Business Case Analysis outlines several alternatives with varying degrees of centralized software license management and reporting operation to determine the most appropriate approach for DOD. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  16. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense partially concurred to develop comprehensive inventory for the management of software licenses. DOD concurred that an inventory should be collected for agency software licenses purchased and/or enterprise wide licenses, however did not concur that a comprehensive inventory of the majority of software regardless of dollar value is required. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by developing a business case analysis of alternative courses of actions for an enterprise software inventory reporting process. The outcome will provide a software license framework and inventory reporting process. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  17. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense partially concurred with this recommendation to develop a comprehensive inventory for the management of software licenses. DOD concurred that ensuring the effective management of software licenses requires regular tracking and maintaining of software license inventory data using automated tools and metrics. However, DOD did not concur that maintaining a comprehensive inventory of all software titles regardless of cost is appropriate for an organization the size of DOD. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by developing a business case analysis of alternative courses of actions for an enterprise software inventory reporting process. The outcome will provide a software license framework and inventory reporting process. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  18. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense concurred with this recommendation to analyze existing agency wide selected software license data. DOD plans to use the findings of this analysis to identify opportunities to reduce costs and inform decision-making on how to proceed with planning a department-wide license reporting capability. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by receiving license inventory from 28 of the 32 DOD components and compiling the data received into a data repository for analysis. Preliminary efforts are underway to identify potential candidates for enterprise licenses, and identify software titles for which the licenses owned are not aligned with the licenses required. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  19. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense concurred with this recommendation to establishing software license management training through the DOD Enterprise Software Initiative that includes contract terms and conditions, negotiations, and laws and regulations. In April 2015, DOD reported taking steps by offering software license acquisition and management training in three formats: monthly two-day on-site classroom training; monthly live one-hour webinars; and training video clips. The training content includes topics on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, and laws and regulations. DOD has not yet identified training due to the emerging Business Case Anaylyses which will determine selections of a reporting capability. DOD has, however, added training content for information technology asset management that will include security and configuration management best practices related to commercial software licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  20. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management, tracking, and reporting of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The purpose of this policy is to meet compliance standards, applicable laws, and licensing restrictions as outlined by Executive Order 13103, Computer Software Piracy. The policy covers software management, use, training and employee and contractor responsibilities. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  21. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management, tracking, and reporting of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The Department, also in March 2015, developed an Implementation Plan for the Software Asset Management Tool, to move to a centralized software license control and monitoring environment, along with the goal of lowering costs as a result of software license consolidation. Once the tool is populated, reports showing licensing usage, cost, under/over usage of software licensing, will be generated. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  22. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management, tracking, and reporting of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The Directive requires the Department to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. The Department also, developed an Implementation Plan for the Software Asset Management Tool, and once the tool is populated, reports will be generated to show cost and under/over usage of software licensing. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  23. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management, tracking, and reporting of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The Directive requires the Department to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  24. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management, tracking, and reporting of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The Department, also developed an Implementation Plan for the Software Asset Management Tool, to move to a centralized software license control and monitoring environment, along with the goal of lowering costs as a result of software license consolidation. Once the tool is populated, reports will be generated showing costs and under/over usage of software licensing. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  25. Status: Open

    Comments: Education concurred with this recommendation and stated it planned to implement a revised software acquisition policy which will allow for better management and tracking of software licenses. In June 2015, the agency reported that it took steps and developed a Department Directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy (dated March 10, 2015). The Department has initiated training for the various roles identified in the process. For example, the Department developed and implemented in March 2015 training for the Software Tracking Database. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  26. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but stated that it had an agency-wide policy that addressed the management of software. According to Energy its policy encourages the consolidation of software package acquisitions, volume purchasing arrangements, enterprise wide agreements and best practices in software implementation. In May 2014, the department stated it agrees that there may be opportunities to aggregate licensing to achieve volume discounts and integrate disparate but related data source. Energy further stated that its IT Modernization Strategy, targeted for completion in fiscal year 2016, seeks to reduce the number of procurement vehicles and to leverage the department's collective buying power. In July 2015, Energy reported taking steps in implementing better software management practices in terms of consolidating software package acquisitions. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  27. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but stated it has taken a number of steps to aggregate licensing, and at that time had no plans to centralize software licensing. According to Energy its policy encourages the consolidation of software package acquisitions, volume purchasing arrangements, enterprise wide agreements and best practices in software implementation. The department stated it agrees that there may be opportunities to aggregate licensing to achieve volume discounts and integrate disparate but related data source. Energy further stated that its IT Modernization Strategy, targeted for completion in fiscal year 2016, seeks to reduce the number of procurement vehicles and to leverage the department's collective buying power. In July 2015, Energy reported taking steps in implementing better software management practices in terms of consolidating software package acquisitions. For example, the agency implemented a new Microsoft contract that is being used by over 85 percent of Energy's enterprise to procure Microsoft products and services. Energy has also implemented a contract that allows the agency to consolidate purchases across the enterprise. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  28. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but stated it has taken a number of steps to aggregate software licensing. Energy stated that its IT Modernization Strategy, targeted for completion in fiscal year 2016, seeks to reduce the number of procurement vehicles and to leverage the department's collective buying power. In July 2015, Energy reported taking steps in implementing better software management practices in terms of consolidating software package acquisitions. The agency noted that it continues to use Continuous Monitoring and Diagnostic tools to inventory and consolidate software usage and eliminate unnecessary maintenance support costs. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  29. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation. Energy stated that its IT Modernization Strategy, targeted for completion in fiscal year 2016, seeks to reduce the number of procurement vehicles and to leverage the department's collective buying power. In July 2015, Energy reported taking steps in implementing better software management practices in terms of consolidating software package acquisitions. The agency is currently base-lining itself against the provisions of the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act to make maximum usage of the GSA-sponsored Federal Strategic Sourcing Initiative contracts as well as demanding software purchasing to be conducted agency-wide when practicable. Consistent with the Act's provisions, Energy is working with GSA on providing usage data and support needed for the establishment of government-wide software contracts. The agency noted that it continues to use Continuous Monitoring and Diagnostic tools to inventory and consolidate software usage and eliminate unnecessary maintenance support costs. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  30. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but stated it has taken a number of steps to aggregate licensing, and at that time had no plans to centralize software licensing. According to Energy its policy encourages the consolidation of software package acquisitions, volume purchasing arrangements, enterprise wide agreements and best practices in software implementation. The department stated it agrees that there may be opportunities to aggregate licensing to achieve volume discounts and integrate disparate but related data sources. Energy further stated that its IT Modernization Strategy, targeted for completion in fiscal year 2016, seeks to reduce the number of procurement vehicles and to leverage the department's collective buying power. In July 2015, Energy reported taking steps in implementing better software management practices in terms of consolidating software package acquisitions. For example, the agency implemented a new Microsoft contract that is being used by over 85 percent of Energy's enterprise to procure Microsoft products and services. Energy has also implemented a contract that allows the agency to consolidate purchases across the enterprise. The agency is currently base-lining itself against the provisions of the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act to make maximum usage of the GSA-sponsored Federal Strategic Sourcing Initiative contracts as well as demanding software purchasing to be conducted agency-wide when practicable. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  31. Status: Open

    Comments: In Energy's written comments the agency neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but stated it has taken a number of steps to aggregate licensing, and at that time had no plans to centralize software licensing. The department noted that training is managed on an office-by-office basis' part of the Individual Development and Training Needs Assessment Process. We will continue to work with the Department to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  32. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote cost savings and visibility regarding IT spending. HHS officials stated that the department has not developed department-wide policies for managing software licenses. However, the officials stated that it has hired a Vendor Management Office Director and that the vendor management office will take the lead in centrally managing HHS commercial vendors and applicable software licenses. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation and continue monitoring its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  33. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote cost savings and visibility regarding IT spending. HHS manages its software licenses in a decentralized manner. However, the department plans to fully staff a vendor management office to centralize the management of software licenses. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  34. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote the license inventory Data Call. HHS notes that it has stood up the Vendor Management Office. This office manages IT spending, HHS commercial vendors, and applicable software/licenses. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation and continue monitoring its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  35. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote the license inventory Data Call. HHS notes that it has stood up the Vendor Management Office. This office manages IT spending, HHS commercial vendors, and applicable software/licenses. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation and continue monitoring its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  36. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote cost savings and visibility regarding IT spending. HHS notes that it has taken steps to, through the Software License Data Call, develop a centralized approach to track and manage future purchases of software licenses. HHS also has stood up the Vendor Management Office. This office manages IT spending, HHS commercial vendors, and applicable software/licenses. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation and continue monitoring its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  37. Status: Open

    Comments: HHS neither agreed nor disagreed with this recommendation and noted initiatives it plans to take to promote cost savings and visibility regarding IT spending. HHS has taken steps to manage the software license training to appropriate agency personnel, noting that the Department's employees have access to contract management training, as well as, certification programs. We will follow up with HHS to obtain supporting documentation and continue monitoring its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  38. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation to employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses. The Department provided planned actions to work with key stakeholders to expand upon its existing portfolio of centrally managed software. In August 2015, the agency noted that it is employing a centralized software license management approach for its Enterprise License Agreement program and is developing a more centralized Departmental approach by leveraging an enterprise architecture tool--the DHS Technology Reference Model (TRM) to build an agency-wide software license inventory. The Department is augmenting the TRM inventory to include security scan results that will be used to establish a baseline of the number, location, and versions of software products installed across the DHS network. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  39. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation to establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. The agency provided planned actions to establish a comprehensive inventory of high value software licenses and incorporate the inventory as part of the management approach to software licenses. In August 2015, the Department reported establishing a comprehensive inventory of enterprise software licenses as part of the Enterprise License Agreement program. The Department is expanding its inventory capabilities through the Technology Reference Model and plans the next version to be released December 31, 2015. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  40. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. The agency provided planned actions to track metrics that included employee usage and the number of licenses purchased, to ensure that costs are aligned with usage requirements, minimizing unused licenses. In August 2015, the Department reported that it is using the Enterprise License Agreement's vendor portals to track and maintain a software inventory. These portals enable access to metrics such as cost avoidance reports and items purchased under each agreement. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  41. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation to analyze agency-wide software license data to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making. The agency provided planned actions to analyze the software license data collected across the Department, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trends, to help make better informed and cost-effective investment decisions. In August 2015, the Department reported that it uses the Enterprise License Agreement program and the Technology Reference Model to identify opportunities to provide cost savings and make more informed investment decisions. The Department plans for the next Technology Reference Model release to be complete December 2015. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  42. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation to provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. The agency provided planned actions to identify software license management training for appropriate personnel that included software contract terms and conditions. Additionally, the agency made plans to outline the appropriate security, acquisition and configuration management policies and procedures. In August 2015, the Department reported that they have developed software license management training that is available for the appropriate personnel. The training addresses contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  43. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, HUD agreed to take executive actions to address our recommendation and noted steps the agency plans to take. In May 2015, the agency reported that it has taken steps to develop a draft agency policy. For example, it has drafted a deprecation of Software asset policy. The policy when completed will determine what modifications are needed to capture the data requirements for deprecation of Software assets. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  44. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, HUD agreed to take executive actions to address our recommendation and noted steps the agency plans to take. In May 2015, the agency reported that it has taken steps to develop a system to track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. For example, the agency has developed an inventory of Government off the Shelf software assets. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  45. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, HUD agreed to take executive actions to address our recommendation and noted steps the agency plans to take. In May 2015, the agency reported that it has taken steps to analyze agency-wide software license data. For example, the agency is implementing an agency-wide requirements management system which will provide the ability to manage the selection and utilization of software license decisions and to analyze trend data at the enterprise level. When implemented, the agency reported that this system will help identify opportunities to reduce costs and potentially consolidate acquisitions. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  46. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, HUD agreed to take executive actions to address our recommendation and noted steps the agency plans to take. In May 2015, the agency reported that it has taken steps to analyze agency-wide software license data. For example, the agency is implementing an agency-wide requirements management system and agency-wide policy that will be an integral part of training personnel for the management of software licenses. The training will be required for all personnel with a role in the management of software licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  47. Status: Open

    Comments: The agency reported in June 2015 that it has begun a strategic sourcing initiative that will provide opportunities for software license management across the enterprise. As a part of this work, the agency has begun to draft an IT Strategic Sourcing Planning Guide and associated Concept of Operations to help capture best prices and strategies for driving efficiencies and cost savings in multiple areas of the agency's information technology enterprise, including software licensing. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  48. Status: Open

    Comments: In June, 2015, the agency reported that it has taken initial steps to plan for a centralized software license management approach that will be coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. The agency agreed with the recommendation and plans to identify a centrally-managed software license management strategy. The agency plans to work with the bureaus and offices to implement the strategy. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  49. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, Interior concurred with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In June, 2015, the agency reported that its milestone to establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses continues to be the same as the agency noted in its July 25, 2014 60-day letter. The agency plans to identify a comprehensive inventory as part of implementing a centrally-managed software license management approach. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  50. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, Interior concurred with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In June, 2015, the agency reported that its milestone to track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics continues to be the same as the agency noted in its July 25, 2014 60-day letter. The agency will provide management reporting on software licenses as part of a centrally-managed software license management strategy. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  51. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, Interior concurred with our recommendation and noted actions the agency plans to take. In June, 2015, the agency reported that its milestone to analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, continues to be the same as the agency noted in its July 25, 2014 60-day letter. The agency also reported that it has begun a strategic sourcing initiative that will provide opportunities for software license management across the enterprise. As a part of this work, the agency has begun to draft an IT Strategic Sourcing Planning Guide and associated Concept of Operations to help capture best prices and strategies for driving efficiencies and cost savings in multiple areas of the agency's information technology enterprise, including software licensing. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  52. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, Interior partially concurred with our recommendation to provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. In August, 2015, the agency reported that it has implemented this recommendation and explained that the Department of the Interior does not sponsor nor require specific training for software license management. Instead, it requires acquisition professionals to obtain and maintain Federal Acquisition Certification in Contracting and/or a Contracting Officer's Certificate. According to the agency these certifications provide the workforce with skills to effectively manage software licenses. The agency noted that the training curriculum covers laws, policies, and procedures, including software licensing.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  53. Status: Open

    Comments: In its June 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, the Department of Justice reported that it was pursing a number of initiatives focused on improving Software License management. For example, the Department is conducting Vendor Management Calls which addresses Software Asset Lifecycle Management policies. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  54. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department reported in June 2015 that it has taken initial steps to address our recommendations. For example, it reported using technology tools to pull software data being used within the infrastructure and to identify what software is not being used. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  55. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department in June 2015 reported that it has initiated steps to establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses by using automated tools. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  56. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department has taken initial steps to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. For example, the Department reported in June 2015, that it is managing a comprehensive inventory for major suppliers and exploring enterprise agreements with key suppliers to ensure compliance. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  57. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department reported in June 2015 that it has taken initial steps to analyze agency-wide software license data by providing better governance of software utilization to derive cost savings and by developing Enterprise License Agreements to achieve savings from processes across the components. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  58. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department reported in June 2015 that it has taken initial steps to provide training to appropriate agency personnel. For example, in the department's Vendor Management Calls they provide training on processes and the use of tools, including contract terms, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning and configuration management. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Justice should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  59. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  60. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  61. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  62. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  63. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) has made some progress in implementing this recommendation. In its July 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, State noted that its primary focus for 2015 has been ongoing support for contract recompetes on enterprise license agreements (ELA) or blanket purchase agreements (BPA) that support the entire department. State is also in the process of determining the best procedures to develop and utilize a centralized purchasing method and inventory for enterprise licenses throughout the department. In addition, State has made progress on simplifying and consolidating the funding and management of a large set of desktop licenses comprising the consolidated bureaus in the department. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  64. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) has made some progress in implementing this recommendation. In its July 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, State noted that its primary focus for 2015 has been ongoing support for contract recompetes on enterprise license agreements (ELA) or blanket purchase agreements (BPA) that support the entire department. State is also in the process of determining the best procedures to develop and utilize a centralized purchasing method and inventory for enterprise licenses throughout the department. In addition, State has made progress on simplifying and consolidating the funding and management of a large set of desktop licenses comprising the consolidated bureaus in the department. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  65. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) has made some progress in implementing this recommendation. In its July 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, State noted that its primary focus for 2015 has been ongoing support for contract recompetes on enterprise license agreements (ELA) or blanket purchase agreements (BPA) that support the entire department. State is also in the process of determining the best procedures to develop and utilize a centralized purchasing method and inventory for enterprise licenses throughout the department. In addition, State has made progress on simplifying and consolidating the funding and management of a large set of desktop licenses comprising the consolidated bureaus in the department. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  66. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) has made some progress in implementing this recommendation. In its July 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, State noted that its primary focus for 2015 has been ongoing support for contract recompetes on enterprise license agreements (ELA) or blanket purchase agreements (BPA) that support the entire department. State is also in the process of determining the best procedures to develop and utilize a centralized purchasing method and inventory for enterprise licenses throughout the Department. In addition, State has made progress on simplifying and consolidating the funding and management of a large set of desktop licenses comprising the consolidated bureaus in the department. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  67. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, State noted that it concurred with our recommendation and plans to identify actions to address this recommendation. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  68. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, State noted that it concurred with our recommendation and plans to identify actions to address this recommendation. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  69. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, a Department of Transportation official stated that the department has initiated a strategy and established a project team to outline the department's plans to address our recommendations. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  70. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, a Department of Transportation official stated that the department has initiated a strategy and established a project team to outline the department's plans to address our recommendations. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  71. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, a Department of Transportation official stated that the department has initiated a strategy and established a project team to outline the department's plans to address our recommendations. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  72. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, a Department of Transportation official stated that the department has initiated a strategy and established a project team to outline the department's plans to address our recommendations. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  73. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, a Department of Transportation official stated that the department has initiated a strategy and established a project team to outline the department's plans to address our recommendations. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  74. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  75. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  76. Status: Open

    Comments: In its July 2015 statement of actions to address our recommendations, Treasury stated that in the interim it is pursuing a number of initiatives focused on improving the cost efficacy of enterprise wide contract vehicles for commodity IT services and software. For example, Treasury noted that an integrated project team (IPT) has been jointly established with the department's chief acquisition officer and is focused on developing dashboards for providing greater transparency into OCIO's IT acquisition pipeline, as well as providing a forum for developing enterprise-wide Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPA's) for items such as software and hardware from entities like ORACLE, CISCO, EMC, Microsoft and ADOBE. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  77. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  78. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  79. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  80. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  81. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  82. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  83. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  84. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  85. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  86. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) agreed with our recommendation, and outlined actions it is taking to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  87. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA concurred with the GAO recommendation for developing an agency-wide comprehensive policy, noting that the agency's policies do not incorporate all the elements recommended and will be considered as the policy and procedures are scheduled for review. EPA reported in May 2015 that the agency has made progress on Software License Management and has taken steps to coordinate efforts across the agency. EPA will leverage the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project. This project is in phase 1 and is focused on hardware and software asset management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  88. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA concurred with the GAO recommendation of employing a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. EPA reported in May 2015 that the agency has made progress on Software License Management and has taken steps to coordinate efforts across the agency. EPA will leverage the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project. This project is in phase 1 and is focused on hardware and software asset management. EPA is conducting an organizational structure review to ensure involvement with the appropriate stakeholders. EPA has reviewed the different entities involved and has identified the process and workgroups that will impact and lead the effort. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  89. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA acknowledged that the agency does not have one comprehensive inventory, however does have an inventory list of software licenses that are managed at the enterprise level. EPA reported in May 2015 that the agency has made progress on this recommendation and is working towards achieving a comprehensive inventory. EPA has reviewed existing tools to generate a comprehensive inventory and EPA will leverage the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project. This project is in phase 1 and is focused on hardware and software asset management. EPA is in the process of procuring a tool that will allow the agency to create a comprehensive software inventory. The Continuous Diagnostic and Mitigation team will coordinate with the IT Operations workgroup in having access to a comprehensive inventory which will be used for analyses. Once the initial inventory is established the IT Operations workgroup will develop processes for tracking, maintaining and providing benefits and opportunities to decision makers. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  90. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA agrees with GAO's assessment to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated discovery and inventory tools and metrics. EPA reported in May 2015 that the agency has made progress on this recommendation. EPA has reviewed existing tools to generate a comprehensive inventory and EPA will leverage the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project. This project is in phase 1 and is focused on hardware and software asset management. EPA is in the process of procuring a tool that will allow the agency to create a comprehensive software inventory. The Continuous Diagnostic and Mitigation team will coordinate with the IT Operations workgroup in having access to a comprehensive inventory which will be used for analyses. Once the initial inventory is established the IT Operations workgroup will develop processes for tracking, maintaining and providing benefits and opportunities to decision makers. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  91. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA agrees with GAO's assessment to analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data to identify opportunities to reduce costs. EPA reported in May 2015 that the agency has made progress on this recommendation. EPA has has taken steps to coordinate efforts across the agency. EPA will leverage the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project. EPA has reviewed the organizational structure and identified entities involved in reviewing, analyzing and determining software applications that can be consolidated at the enterprise level. EPA has been moving toward consolidated purchases of licenses. For example, the agency has plans to consolidate all Microsoft licenses into one agreement. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  92. Status: Open

    Comments: EPA disagreed with GAO's assessment for training and believes that the agency has the proper training program in place to address this concern. EPA noted that Software license management training is already required by those engaged in performing these duties. The agency noted that it requires Contracting Officer Representatives on these contracts to know about acquisition and that the have specific technical knowledge to advise the Contracting Officers. While EPA believes no additional training is needed beyond the currently identified training, it is active in developing and reefing the Federal Acquisition Certification Program and Project Managers Certifications. We will continue to work with EPA to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  93. Status: Open

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation and stated it would take actions as appropriate. The Chief Information Officer has established a Vendor Management Office to improve the Information Technology vendor management discipline and reduce contract costs through consolidations. In August 2015, GSA reported taking steps to develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses. Specifically, the Vendor Management Office will coordinate the establishment of policies and processes to improve the management of enterprise software licenses. The Vendor Management office and local support teams have provided a baseline process that would produce a comprehensive internal policy that will be implemented for management of all enterprise software licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  94. Status: Open

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation and stated it would take actions as appropriate. In August 2015, GSA reported taking steps to establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. The CIO assembled a baseline inventory of all IT contracts. The agency reported development of a Standard Operating Procedures and a consistent process to maintain the full inventory of all GSA IT contracts, with the goal of leveraging existing IT tools to provide an accurate baseline count of existing licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  95. Status: Open

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation and stated it would take actions as appropriate. The agency established a vendor management office to improve its IT and reported development of a baseline inventory. The agency further stated that the enterprise license repository will be published and marketed across the agency. In August 2015, GSA reported taking steps to establish the IT Vendor Management Office, a comprehensive inventory of software licenses and the development of a Standard Operating Procedures, with the goal of leveraging existing IT tools to provide an accurate baseline count of existing licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  96. Status: Open

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation and stated it would take actions as appropriate. The agency established a vendor management office to improve its IT and reported establishing a consistent process to look for opportunities on an ongoing basis to provide further efficiencies in software purchasing. In August 2015, GSA reported taking steps and established the IT Vendor Management Office, with the vision of understanding the agency's vendor portfolio to identify efficiencies and cost savings, the development of Standard Operating Procedures, with the goal of leveraging existing IT tools to provide an accurate baseline count of existing licenses, and initial areas of opportunities to consolidate software licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain additional supporting documentation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  97. Status: Open

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation and stated it would take actions as appropriate. In August 2015, GSA reported taking steps to develop and conduct mandatory training for all individuals involved in the governance and tracking of software licenses. Specific actions to be taken included creating training documentation an d identifying target audiences for the training. The agency reported that it will then distribute or conduct the training and provide a track sheet of completed training. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  98. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In its May 2015 response to this recommendation, NASA stated that an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses is in its development phase. The agency estimates the completion date for this policy to be April 1,2016. We will continue to monitor NASA's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses identified.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  99. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In its May 2015 response to this recommendation, NASA stated that its Agency Consolidated End-User Services (ACES) contract modification in the summer of 2015 will address this recommendation. NASA reported that the modifications will be fully implemented by January 29, 2016. We will continue to monitor NASA's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  100. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In its May 2015 response to this recommendation, NASA stated that its Agency Consolidated End-User Services (ACES) contract modification in the summer of 2015 will address this recommendation. NASA reported that the modifications will be fully implemented by January 29, 2016. We will continue to monitor NASA's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  101. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In its May 2015 response to this recommendation, NASA stated that its Agency Consolidated End-User Services (ACES) contract modification in the summer of 2015 will address this recommendation. NASA reported that the modifications will be fully implemented by January 29, 2016. We will continue to monitor NASA's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  102. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed with, and has taken steps to implement this recommendation. For example, NASA increased the number of software agreements managed by its enterprise license management team (ELMT) from 24 to 42 in fiscal year 2014 and analyzed the agency?s software license data, such as cost, benefits, and usage to identify opportunities to reduce costs and make better informed investments moving forward. As a result of these actions, in fiscal year 2014, NASA avoided a cumulative cost of about $19.1 million. The agency also stated that its ELMT has targeted 17 new software agreements for inclusion into the ELMT portfolio for FY 2015 and plans to continue to incrementally increase the number of ELMT-managed agreements in the future which should provide it opportunities to realize additional cost avoidance opportunities and better insight into the consumption of software in the future. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  103. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In its May 2015 response to this recommendation, NASA stated that its Agency Consolidated End-User Services (ACES) contract modification in the summer of 2015 will address this recommendation. NASA reported that the modifications will be fully implemented by January 29, 2016. We will continue to monitor NASA's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  104. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  105. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  106. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  107. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  108. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC reported that it has developed a framework and maturity model for Software Asset Management (SAM) and is in the process of completing a future state roadmap and activity plan to integrate with the governance, processes and technology relating to the comprehensive strategy. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  109. Status: Open

    Comments: NRC has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC stated that it has defined current and future state requirements. As part of this effort, the agency developed process maps to identify the roles and responsibility of each key stakeholder for key high level processes for software management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  110. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC stated that it is continuing to centralize and standardize purchases of software licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  111. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC stated that the agency reviewed the governance, processes and technology relating to its management of software assets as part of a comprehensive assessment on the agency's Software Asset Management's current state and future state requirements. As part of this assessment, the requirements for automated tools were identified. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  112. Status: Open

    Comments: NRC has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC stated that the agency has developed a framework and maturity model and is continuing to centralize, standardize, and consolidate purchases of software licenses and enterprise-wide initiatives. NRC also reported that it is in the process of completing a future state roadmap and activity plan which will assist the agency in making informed decisions regarding software asset management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  113. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In its June 2015 response to this recommendation, NRC stated that the agency has reviewed the governance, processes and technology relating to NRC's management of software assets as part of a comprehensive assessment on NRC's Software Asset Management's current state and future state requirements. The agency also noted that once a comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses is developed, NRC will provide appropriate training to agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  114. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  115. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  116. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  117. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  118. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  119. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  120. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2015, the agency reported that it had established a working group comprised of personnel across the agency to develop software license policy. SBA reported that the working group has begun research to leverage best practices that should be incorporated in the policy. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  121. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration (SBA) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2015, the agency reported that the SBA Office of the Chief Information Office (OCIO) established a Technology Review Board (TRB) that reviews all new software requests. The TRB currently functions as the one-stop shop for SBA technical solutions and provides direct Points of Contacts within the SBA OCIO for program offices. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  122. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration (SBA) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2015, the agency reported that with the assistance of contract support and the implementation of software tracking tools, SBA can capture key information regarding purchases of software, including license agreements, installed software, expiration dates and current versions of assets in a centralized repository. However, as of May 2015, SBA has not provided support showing the total software licenses and software license spending it manages centrally through a comprehensive inventory. We will follow up with the Small Business Administration to obtain documentation supporting actions on this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  123. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration (SBA) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2015, the agency reported that with the assistance of contract support and the implementation of software tracking tools, including a software usage analysis tool, SBA can capture key information regarding purchases of software, including license agreements, installed software, expiration dates and current versions of assets in a centralized repository. However, as of May 2015, SBA has not provided support showing that the agency regularly tracks and maintains a comprehensive inventory that contains enterprise wide software licenses data. We will follow up with the Small Business Administration to obtain documentation supporting actions on this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  124. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration (SBA) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2015, the agency reported that with the assistance of contract support and the implementation of software tracking tools, SBA can capture key information regarding purchases of software, including license agreements, installed software, expiration dates and current versions of assets in a centralized repository. In addition, SBA reported that it can produce several reports on its software license inventory. However, as of May 2015, SBA has not provided support demonstrating that it has analyzed agency-wide software license data such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data to inform investment decisions and identify opportunities to reduce costs. We will follow up with the SBA to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  125. Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  126. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In June 2015, SSA reported that a workgroup drafted a policy for the management of software licenses. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  127. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration agreed with and has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In June 2015, SSA reported that a workgroup drafted a policy for the management of software licenses. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  128. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In June 2015, SSA reported that it has begun to populate an automated tool (HP's Asset Manager) with software license data and expects to complete this task by the end of the calendar year - 2015. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  129. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. For example, in June 2015, SSA reported that it was in the process of populating an automated tool (HPAM) with software licensing data to establish a comprehensive inventory of software license data. The agency further noted that as it enters software assets on each vendor contract, it will be training the contracting officer's technical representatives (COTRs) and working with them to develop reports to track the inventory. SSA reported that it expects to complete this initial process by the end of March 2016. We will continue to evaluate the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  130. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration (SSA) has taken initial steps to implement our recommendation. In June 2015, SSA reported that it was in the process of populating an automated tool (HPAM) with software license data and collecting usage and trending data to develop reports for analysis and decision making by the end of March 2016. We will follow up with SSA to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should analyze agency-wide departmental software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  131. Status: Open

    Comments: The Social Security Administration (SSA) has yet to implement this recommendation. In June 2015, SSA reported that training on contract terms and conditions is difficult because of the wide variety of ways to license software. SSA further noted that as the agency gains better insight into exactly who is using what software; it anticipates better communication with user groups that could include technical information as well as acquisition and licensing information. However, until SSA provides sufficient training, including training on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management, to appropriate agency personnel, key personnel may lack the skills and knowledge to perform their roles in managing software licenses more cost-effectively. We will continue to work with SSA and monitor the agency's progress in addressing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  132. Status: Open

    Comments: The US Agency for international Development (USAID) has yet to implement this recommendation. In its July 2015 response to this recommendation, USAID stated that its CIO has been engaged in the process of outlining the different action officers, timelines and tasks required to address the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  133. Status: Open

    Comments: The US Agency for international Development (USAID) has yet to implement this recommendation. In its July 2015 response to this recommendation, USAID stated that its CIO has been engaged in the process of outlining the different action officers, timelines and tasks required to address the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  134. Status: Open

    Comments: The US Agency for international Development (USAID) has yet to implement this recommendation. In its July 2015 response to this recommendation, USAID stated that its CIO has been engaged in the process of outlining the different action officers, timelines and tasks required to address the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  135. Status: Open

    Comments: The US Agency for international Development (USAID) has yet to implement this recommendation. In its July 2015 response to this recommendation, USAID stated that its CIO has been engaged in the process of outlining the different action officers, timelines and tasks required to address the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  136. Status: Open

    Comments: The US Agency for international Development (USAID) has yet to implement this recommendation. In its July 2015 response to this recommendation, USAID stated that its CIO has been engaged in the process of outlining the different action officers, timelines and tasks required to address the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the agency's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

 

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