Warfighter Support:

DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

GAO-13-212: Published: Feb 8, 2013. Publicly Released: Feb 8, 2013.

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Cary B. Russell
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russellc@gao.gov

 

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What GAO Found

The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and the services have taken steps to integrate operational contract support into planning for contingency operations. For example, in April 2011, the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, working with the Joint Staff, revised the Guidance for the Employment of the Force to require planning for operational contract support in all phases of military operations. Further, in December 2011, the Department of Defense (DOD) revised an instruction and issued corresponding regulations establishing policies and procedures for operational contract support. The Army issued service-specific guidance that describes roles, responsibilities, and requirements to help integrate operational contract support into its planning efforts for contingency operations. However, the Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force have not issued similar comprehensive guidance for integrating operational contract support throughout each service. Instead, these services have taken actions such as developing training and other individual efforts to familiarize servicemembers with operational contract support. According to service officials, one reason that they have not issued comprehensive guidance similar to the Army's guidance is because the Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force have not been the lead service for contracting in recent operations. However, these services combined spent over a billion dollars for contracted services in Afghanistan in fiscal year 2011. Without specific, service-wide guidance, the other services' future planning efforts may not reflect the full extent of the use of contract support and the attendant cost and need for oversight.

The combatant commands and their components have begun to incorporate operational contract support into their planning for contingencies, but they have not fully integrated operational contract support in all functional areas. We found that the combatant commands and components are not planning for the potential use of contractors in areas where they may be needed beyond logistics such as communications. Recognizing the problem, DOD, in October 2012, issued guidance that calls on functional planners beyond the logistics area to identify major support functions planned for commercial support sourcing. GAO also found that officials involved with logistics planning at the commands receive training from the Joint Staff and assistance from embedded operational contract support planners to help integrate operational contract support into logistics planning. However, officials involved in planning for other areas--such as intelligence--that have used contractors in past operations, do not receive such training. Further, the embedded operational contract support planners do not focus on areas beyond logistics. Moreover, while the combatant commands have embedded experts to assist with operational contract support planning, the military service components do not have such expertise. Without training for all planners, a broader focus beyond logistics for embedded planners, and expertise offered at the military service components, DOD risks being unprepared to plan and manage deployed contractor personnel and may not be able to provide the necessary oversight during future contingencies.

Why GAO Did This Study

DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past decade. At the height of Operation Iraqi Freedom, the number of contractors exceeded the number of military personnel, and a similar situation is occurring in Afghanistan. In January 2011, the Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum noting the risk of DOD's level of dependency on contractors and outlined actions to institutionalize changes necessary to influence how the department plans for contracted support in contingency operations. The memorandum also called for leveraging the civilian expeditionary workforce to reduce DOD's reliance on contractors, but this workforce is not yet fully developed. GAO was asked to examine DOD's progress in planning for operational contract support. Our review determined how DOD is integrating operational contract support into its planning through efforts of the (1) OSD, Joint Staff, and military services, and (2) combatant commands and their components. To conduct its work, GAO evaluated DOD operational contract support guidance and documents and met with officials at various DOD offices.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that the Navy , Marine Corps and Air Force provide guidance on planning for operational contract support; that the Joint Staff provide training for all planners; that the planners broaden their focus to include areas beyond logistics; and that expertise is offered to service components to further integrate operational contract support into plans. DOD generally agreed with the recommendations.

For more information, contact Cary Russell at (202) 512-5431 or russellc@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: As of September 2014 the Air Force, Navy and the Marine Corps have not published OCS guidance. The OCS Action plan dated April 2014 directs the services to establish OCS guidance by the 2nd quarter of FY 2015.

    Recommendation: To further the integration of operational contract support into all of the services' planning, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretaries of the Navy and Air Force to provide comprehensive service-wide guidance for the Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force that describes how each service should integrate operational contract support into its respective organization to include planning for contingency operations.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: According to the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Program Support) the department intends to include OCS planning in its general planning courses. However as of September, 2014 the department's operational planning courses have not been updated to include a focus on OCS planning. However, the Joint Staff has developed the Joint OCS Planning and Execution Course which is open to all planners from all functional areas. According to Joint Staff J4 officials the participants in the 2-week course have included planners not just from the logistics functional area but from other functional areas as well. Attendance at this course in not mandatory and according to DOD officials, it is sometimes difficult to get planners from other functional areas to dedicate 2 weeks to OCS planning.

    Recommendation: To further the integration of operational contract support into all areas of the operation planning process, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to focus its training about operational contract support, which is currently focused on the logistics planners, on training all planners at the combatant commands and components as necessary.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  3. Status: Open

    Comments: The Joint Staff Operational Contract Support and Services division along with Joint Acquisition Contingency Support Office are working with the OCS planners at the combatant commands to expand their efforts to assist planners in all functional areas. For example, OCS planners routinely attend combatant command planning conferences, sponsor OCS specific training, to include training on OCS planning, at the combatant commands, and identify actions planners in other functional areas need to take to ensure that OCS equities are included in appropriate function annexes to operation plans. DOD recognizes that more needs to be done however to increase awareness of OCS in other functional areas

    Recommendation: To further enable all planners at the combatant commands to integrate operational contract support into plans across their functional areas, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to identify and implement actions by the combatant commanders needed to ensure that planners from the Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office supporting the combatant commands expand their focus to work with planners throughout all functional areas.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: As of September 2014 there are no services specific policies requiring operational contract support (OCS) education or training and only the Army offers OCS related training. However, DOD anticipates that the Joint Staff's voluntary Joint OCS Planning and Execution Course will increase the combatant commands', component commands' and services' knowledge of operational contract support as more personnel throughout DOD take this course.

    Recommendation: To enable the integration of operational contract support into service component command-level planning efforts, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to work with the military services as necessary to improve the level of expertise in operational contract support for the combatant commands' components.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

 

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