Organizational Transformation:

Enterprise Architecture Value Needs to Be Measured and Reported

GAO-12-791: Published: Sep 26, 2012. Publicly Released: Sep 26, 2012.

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What GAO Found

Among the 27 agencies that GAO studied, all have fully or partially defined goals or purposes for their architectures, 11 have fully or partially established a method or metrics for measuring outcomes resulting from the use of their architectures, while 5 have fully or partially measured and reported outcomes and benefits.

Agencies cited a lack of guidance as a key reason why they have not established methods and metrics for measuring outcomes and benefits. Although the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued recent enterprise architecture guidance to agencies, OMB has not yet provided sufficient details on the method and metrics that could be used to measure architecture program outcomes.

Why GAO Did This Study

According to OMB, the federal executive branch plans to spend at least $75 billion on information technology (IT) investments in fiscal year 2012. In response to a statute which mandates that GAO identify duplicative activities within federal agencies, GAO previously identified enterprise architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap in investments. An architecture is a "blueprint" that describes how an organization operates in terms of business processes and technology, how it intends to operate in the future, and how it plans to transition to the future state. Knowing whether architecture outcomes are being achieved requires defining the architecture's goals, establishing a method and metrics to measure architecture outcomes, and periodically measuring and reporting these outcomes. To assess agencies' use of architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap, GAO committed to determine the extent to which agencies are measuring and reporting architecture outcomes and benefits. To do this, GAO reviewed relevant documentation from 27 major federal agencies, reviewed the results of a GAO survey on the benefits of using architecture, and interviewed agency officials.

What GAO Recommends

GAO is making recommendations to the agencies and OMB to improve measurement and reporting of architecture outcomes. In commenting on a draft of this report, OMB and most of the agencies generally agreed with the findings and recommendations.

For more information, contact Valerie C. Melvin at (202) 512-6304 or melvinv@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security has yet to fully implement this recommendation. In March 2014, the department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating systems and sharing services. However, the department has yet to establish a documented method for measuring architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Agriculture has taken steps to address our recommendation. In March 2014, the department issued its Enterprise Roadmap, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as the change in the percentage of department investments using shared services. However, the department has yet to establish a documented method for measuring architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established a metric to measure the extent to which the ratio of spending on development, modernization, and enhancement (DME) increased relative to steady-state spending, through use of its enterprise architecture activities; however, we also reported that it had yet to establish a method to measure this metric. Since then, in its May 2014 Enterprise Modernization Roadmap, the Department documented the method used for measuring this metric.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Commerce has yet to fully implement this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established metrics to measure and report outcomes associated with its enterprise architecture program, such as information technology cost savings. However, it had not yet established a method (i.e. steps to be followed) for measuring the outcomes. In June 2014, Commerce's Chief Enterprise Architect reported that the department issued a new strategic plan in March 2014 and that a new Enterprise Architecture Roadmap, tied to the new strategic plan, was under development. According to the department, this roadmap will contain milestones for building the architecture and include metrics to measure the impact and success of the architecture effort. As of June 2014, a timeframe for completing the new Enterprise Architecture Roadmap has not been established.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  5. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense has yet to fully address our recommendation. In March 2014, the department issued its Enterprise Roadmap which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts. However, the department has not established a method (i.e. steps to be followed) for measuring architecture outcomes. According to the Enterprise Roadmap, the DOD Chief Information Officer plans to further address enterprise architecture measures and outcomes as part of future enterprise architecture management guidance and in the next version of its annual Enterprise Roadmap.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  6. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Air Force has yet to implement this recommendation. In July 2014, the Deputy Director for Cyberspace Strategy & Policy stated that the Air Force was developing plans to address elements in GAO's Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework, including plans regarding enterprise architecture performance, metrics, and reporting. As of October 2014, the Air Force has yet to demonstrate that a plan has been approved.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force

  7. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Navy has taken steps to implement this recommendation. The department established metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as the percentage of server-based systems and applications that are virtualized annually. However, as of June 2014, the department has yet to establish a documented method for measuring the outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Navy

  8. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Army has taken steps to address our recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that of the department's three segment architectures, the Network segment had established metrics and a method to measure architecture-related outcomes, but the Generating and Operating Force segments had yet to establish them. Since then, in December 2013, the Generating Force segment (also known as the Business Mission Area segment) developed an Army Business Management Strategy, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as the number of business systems retired over five years and cost savings and avoidance achieved through the use of the Army's business enterprise architecture. However, as of August 2014, the segment has yet to establish a documented method for measuring architecture outcomes. In addition, as of June 2014, the Operating Force segment has yet to establish metrics and methods to measure enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Army

  9. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Energy has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In May 2013 and again in March 2014, it submitted its Enterprise Modernization Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings and avoidance through system consolidation. However, as of September 2014, the department did not demonstrate that these cost savings were calculated using an established method.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  10. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency established an approach, including a documented method and metric to measure information technology procurement cost savings. Specifically, the agency documented its approach for measuring fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes, which it used to measure fiscal year 2013 outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  11. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Interior has addressed our recommendation. In February 2014, the Department submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which established architecture outcome metrics. For example, the roadmap included a metric associated with measuring the cost savings or avoidance achieved through the use of architecture planning and analysis. The department also provided its methodology for measuring this outcome.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  12. Status: Open

    Comments: As of January 2015, the Department of Justice has not yet demonstrated that it has established an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with its enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  13. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation has yet to fully implement our recommendation. The department's April 2013 Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Plan included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as measuring the architecture program contributes to cost savings or avoidance. However, the department has yet to document the steps to be followed for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes. In July 2014, the department's Director of Information Technology Compliance stated that the department plans to collect preliminary enterprise architecture outcome information by the end of September 2014 and then begin taking steps to establish a baseline for measuring outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  14. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Labor has yet to implement the recommendation. As of September 2014, the department has yet to finalize metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts and to establish a documented method for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  15. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Treasury has yet to fully implement our recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established enterprise architecture metrics, but that it had yet to establish a methodology for measuring its architecture outcomes. In March 2014, the department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included new metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating systems and sharing services. However, the department has not documented a method for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  16. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Veterans Affairs has yet to fully implement this recommendation. In its March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap, the department established metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. However, it has yet to establish a method for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  17. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State has yet to implement this recommendation. The department reported that its Chief Information Officer established the Office of the Chief Architect in January 2014 to support the alignment of the department's information technology strategy, processes, and assets with its enterprise architecture. However, as of June 2014, the department has yet to establish a documented method and metrics to measure architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  18. Status: Open

    Comments: The Environmental Protection Agency has taken steps to address our recommendation. In March 2014, the agency submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. However, as of July 2014, it has yet to establish a method for measuring architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  19. Status: Open

    Comments: The General Services Administration has yet to fully implement this recommendation. In February 2014, the agency issued its Enterprise Roadmap which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. However, as of June 2014, it has yet to establish a method for measuring the outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  20. Status: Open

    Comments: NASA has taken steps to implement this recommendation. NASA's Enterprise Architecture Procedures, approved in December 2013, state that key enterprise architecture metrics, such as cost savings and reduction of duplication, will be established. The procedures also state that NASA's Chief Architect will work with internal and external stakeholders to develop and mature metrics that provide information on enterprise architecture benefits and clearly illustrate progress or deficiencies in key areas. However, the agency has yet to establish metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts. In June 2014, NASA officials stated that while NASA is committed to developing appropriate metrics, the development of these metrics depends on its ongoing efforts to establish a disciplined enterprise architecture process.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  21. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Science Foundation has yet to implement this recommendation. As of August 2014, the agency had developed a draft Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement report that included metrics associated with the department's enterprise architecture efforts, such as the number of investments that have been reviewed by the architecture team. However, the draft report did not include metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. The agency expects to include its Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement report in its final Enterprise Roadmap, which it expects to finalize in the spring of 2015.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  22. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration has taken steps to implement our recommendation. In April 2014, it submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. However, the agency has yet to establish a method for measuring architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  23. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has yet to fully implement our recommendation. In September 2012, we reported that the agency had established a metric for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, but had yet to establish a method. In July 2014, the agency's Deputy Chief Information Officer reported that the Enterprise Roadmap it submits to the Office of the Management and Budget in 2015 will outline how the agency will measure the performance and value of its enterprise architecture.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  24. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has yet to fully implement this recommendation. In September 2012, we reported that OPM had established a metric to measure enterprise architecture results and outcomes, but it had not established the steps needed to determine the results and outcomes. In May 2013, it submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget. The roadmap included an Outcomes and Measurement Template, which documented metrics to measure architecture-related outcomes, such as how the enterprise architecture program contributes to cost savings through system consolidation and consolidating and sharing services. However, the agency has yet to establish a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) to measure results. In January 2015, an OPM official stated that the agency is continuing work to address our recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  25. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security has yet to fully implement this recommendation. The department's fiscal year 2014 Enterprise Roadmap reports cost savings gained through system consolidation and sharing services. However, the department did not reliably measure the outcomes. More specifically, it has not yet established a method to calculate the savings. Furthermore, the department has yet to demonstrate that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  26. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Agriculture has yet to implement this recommendation. In March 2014, the department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts. However, the department has yet to measure and report specific enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  27. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had reported an architecture outcome in its October 2011 Office of the Chief Information Officer Organization Performance report. Specifically, the department had reported that the ratio of development, modernization and enhancement (DME)spending to steady state spending had increased from 10 percent of total information technology (IT) spending in fiscal year 2011 to 13 percent of total IT spending in fiscal year 2012 as a result of its architecture activities. However, we also reported that the department had yet to periodically (i.e., repeatedly) measure and report the metric. Since then, the department reported to top agency officials at an August 2013 Investment Review Board meeting and in its May 2013 draft Enterprise Roadmap submission to the Office of Management and Budget that the department had achieved its DME spending target of 17 percent.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  28. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Commerce has taken steps to implement this recommendation. In November 2012, the department reported outcomes associated with its enterprise architecture program to top agency officials. However, as of November 2013, the department had yet to periodically report outcomes to top agency officials and to OMB. In June 2014, Commerce's Chief Enterprise Architect reported that a new Enterprise Architecture Roadmap was under development. According to the Chief Enterprise Architect, once the new Roadmap has been approved and signed by the Deputy Secretary, specific milestones will be developed and used to measure the impact and success of the architecture effort and reported to the Secretary on a regular basis. However, as of June 2014 a new Enterprise Architecture Roadmap had not been approved.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  29. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense has yet to implement this recommendation. As of June 2014, the department has yet to measure and report specific enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  30. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Air Force has yet to implement this recommendation. The Deputy Director for Cyberspace Strategy & Policy stated that the Air Force is currently developing planning information regarding enterprise architecture performance, including metrics, and reporting outcomes. However, as of October 2014, the Air Force has yet to demonstrate that a plan has been approved.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force

  31. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Navy has not yet implemented this recommendation. The department has not demonstrated that it is reliably measuring and reporting enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials and to the Office of Management and Budget.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Navy

  32. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Army has taken steps to implement the recommendation. In particular, one of the department's three segments, the Generating Force segment (also known as the Business Mission Area segment) has periodically reported enterprise architecture outcomes to top agency officials. Specifically, in December 2013, the Under Secretary of the Army issued an Army Business Management Strategy, which reported that 59 systems were retired in 2013 through use of enterprise architecture. In addition, in its May 2014 briefing to the Defense Business Council, the department reported the number of business systems that were retired using enterprise architecture in 2014, and the cost savings associated with the retirements. However, the Network and Operating Force segments have yet to report enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Army

  33. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Energy has yet to implement the recommendation. The department reported in its March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap that one of its components achieved cost savings through system consolidation. However, the department did not demonstrate that these cost savings were calculated using an established method.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  34. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency issued a report on fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes and benefits, and again in November 2013 on fiscal year 2013 architecture outcomes and benefits, to its Chief Information Officer. The outcomes were associated with consolidating hardware requirements and bundling purchases. In the agency's March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap submitted to the Office of Management and Budget, the agency's Chief Information Officer reported cost savings associated with its architecture efforts.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  35. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Interior has taken steps to address this recommendation. The department's Chief Financial Officer submitted the department's February 2014 Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which reported $8.7 million in fiscal year 2013 cost savings as a result of enterprise architecture efforts. However, the department has yet to demonstrate that it periodically (i.e., regularly and repeatedly, such as monthly, quarterly or annually) measures and reports architecture outcomes to top agency officials and the Office of Management and Budget. Agency officials state that enterprise architecture measures will continue to be periodically updated and reported.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  36. Status: Open

    Comments: As of January 2015, the Department of Justice has not yet demonstrated that it periodically measures and reports enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to the Office of Management and Budget.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  37. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation has yet to implement this recommendation. In July 2014, the department's Director of Information Technology Compliance stated that the department planned to collect preliminary outcomes information at the end of fiscal year 2014.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  38. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Labor has yet to implement the recommendation. As of September 2014, the department has yet to measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  39. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Treasury has yet to fully implement this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had reported architecture outcomes; however the metrics had yet to be periodically measured and reported. In March 2014, the department submitted its IT Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget which reported architecture outcomes. However, the department did not demonstrate that it reliably measured the outcomes. Specifically, the department has not documented a method for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  40. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Veterans Affairs has yet to implement this recommendation. Specifically, the department has yet to establish a method for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes. In January 2014, the department reported that plans to begin reporting on leading indicators, which may include measures that provide information about, among other things, the use of enterprise services, during fiscal year 2015.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  41. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State has yet to implement our recommendation. The department reported that in January 2014 the Chief Information Officer established the Office of the Chief Architect to support the alignment of the department's information technology strategy, processes, and assets with its enterprise architecture. However, as of June 2014, the department has yet to measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials and the Office of Management and Budget.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  42. Status: Open

    Comments: The Environmental Protection Agency has taken steps to implement this recommendation. The agency submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap, which identified outcomes associated with its enterprise architecture efforts. For example, the agency reported cost savings achieved in fiscal year 2013 related to consolidating and sharing services. However, the agency did not demonstrate that it reliably measured the outcome. Specifically, the department has not established a documented method to measure architecture-related outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  43. Status: Open

    Comments: The General Services Administration has not yet implemented this recommendation. In February 2014, the agency submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which reported cost savings and avoidance gained through use of its enterprise architecture. However, the agency did not demonstrate that it reliably measured the outcome. Specifically, the department has not documented the steps to be followed to measure architecture-related outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  44. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has not yet implemented this recommendation. According to the agency's December 2013 Enterprise Architecture Procedural Requirement, NASA's Chief Enterprise Architect will track results related to its enterprise architecture efforts and, at least annually, review the outcomes with the Chief Information Officer to communicate results and feedback, in order to improve the enterprise architecture program as well as the investment process. However, metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, which would inform such reporting, have not yet been developed.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  45. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, the National Science Foundation has yet to implement this recommendation. The agency has yet to establish metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  46. Status: Open

    Comments: The Small Business Administration has not yet implemented this recommendation. In April 2014, the agency submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts. However, the agency has not yet measured outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  47. Status: Open

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has yet to fully implement our recommendation. In July 2014, the agency's Deputy Chief Information Officer reported that the agency's 2015 Enterprise Roadmap will outline how it will measure value related to its enterprise architecture.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  48. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management has yet to implement this recommendation. In September 2012, we reported that agency officials stated that cost savings had been reported to the Chief Information Officer, but that officials had not provided documentation to support that the cost savings had been reliably measured. In January 2015, an OPM official stated that the agency is continuing work to address our recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  49. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Housing and Urban Development has fully implemented our recommendation. Specifically, since it reported outcomes for 2011, the department has measured architecture outcomes and reported them again to an agency executive committee, as well as to the Office of Management and Budget. For example, it reported progress in reducing the number of technology products that duplicate existing capabilities through use of its architecture. According to agency officials, the department's Chief Information Officer reviewed and approved the report in April 2013 and an executive committee reviewed the architecture outcomes before they were submitted to the Office of Management and Budget in May 2013.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  50. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Health and Human Services has not fully implemented this recommendation. Specifically, since the department reported architecture results to its Chief Information Officer in November 2010, it has yet to measure and report them to top agency officials again. In April 2014, the department issued an Enterprise Roadmap, which includes metrics to measure outcomes such as cost savings as a result of consolidating and sharing services; however, it has yet to measure and report the outcomes. An official from the department's Office of Enterprise Architecture stated that the office recognizes that more needs to be done to refine the measures and establish a repeatable process for reporting enterprise architecture results.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  51. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Management and Budget has taken steps to address our recommendation. In March 2013, the office required agencies to submit annually an Enterprise Roadmap, which is to include an appendix on enterprise architecture outcomes. To prepare the appendix, the office provided agencies a template to document architecture metrics and measurement methods. Among other things, the template included examples of outcome metrics and a field where agencies are to document measurement methods. However, the Office of Management and Budget has not provided details on the methods that agencies could use to measure architecture outcomes or required that agencies include the steps to be followed for measuring in their enterprise roadmap submissions or to be otherwise documented elsewhere.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, and to assist agencies in measuring and reporting outcomes achieved through enterprise architecture, the Director of OMB should ensure that the planned December 2012 guidance for enterprise architecture value measurement and reporting includes (1) sufficient details on the method and metrics that agencies could use to measure their architecture program's value and (2) a requirement for agencies to include in their April 2013 enterprise roadmap submissions a measurement method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics, and report on the outcomes and benefits achieved through enterprise architecture.

    Agency Affected: Executive Office of the President: Office of Management and Budget

 

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