Organizational Transformation:

Enterprise Architecture Value Needs to Be Measured and Reported

GAO-12-791: Published: Sep 26, 2012. Publicly Released: Sep 26, 2012.

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What GAO Found

Among the 27 agencies that GAO studied, all have fully or partially defined goals or purposes for their architectures, 11 have fully or partially established a method or metrics for measuring outcomes resulting from the use of their architectures, while 5 have fully or partially measured and reported outcomes and benefits.

Agencies cited a lack of guidance as a key reason why they have not established methods and metrics for measuring outcomes and benefits. Although the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued recent enterprise architecture guidance to agencies, OMB has not yet provided sufficient details on the method and metrics that could be used to measure architecture program outcomes.

Why GAO Did This Study

According to OMB, the federal executive branch plans to spend at least $75 billion on information technology (IT) investments in fiscal year 2012. In response to a statute which mandates that GAO identify duplicative activities within federal agencies, GAO previously identified enterprise architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap in investments. An architecture is a "blueprint" that describes how an organization operates in terms of business processes and technology, how it intends to operate in the future, and how it plans to transition to the future state. Knowing whether architecture outcomes are being achieved requires defining the architecture's goals, establishing a method and metrics to measure architecture outcomes, and periodically measuring and reporting these outcomes. To assess agencies' use of architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap, GAO committed to determine the extent to which agencies are measuring and reporting architecture outcomes and benefits. To do this, GAO reviewed relevant documentation from 27 major federal agencies, reviewed the results of a GAO survey on the benefits of using architecture, and interviewed agency officials.

What GAO Recommends

GAO is making recommendations to the agencies and OMB to improve measurement and reporting of architecture outcomes. In commenting on a draft of this report, OMB and most of the agencies generally agreed with the findings and recommendations.

For more information, contact Valerie C. Melvin at (202) 512-6304 or melvinv@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security has implemented this recommendation. Specifically, in March 2014 and May 2015, the Department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included outcome metrics to measure cost savings/avoidance gained from system consolidation and consolidating and sharing services through use of its architecture. In addition, in August 2016, it documented a method for measuring the cost savings.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2016, the Department of Agriculture has not yet implemented this recommendation. An official from the department's Office of the Chief Information Officer stated that the department's enterprise architecture program was not at a level of maturity to establish an approach for measuring architecture outcomes. The official stated that as the department continues to mature its enterprise architecture, it will be developing new metrics and methods for measuring outcomes. In particular, the official stated that the department plans to develop an approach to measure architecture value by December 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established a metric to measure the extent to which the ratio of spending on development, modernization, and enhancement increased relative to steady-state spending, through use of its enterprise architecture activities; however, we also reported that it had yet to establish a method to measure this metric. Since then, in its May 2014 Enterprise Modernization Roadmap, the Department documented the method used for measuring this metric.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Commerce has yet to implement this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established metrics to measure and report outcomes associated with its enterprise architecture program, such as information technology cost savings, but it had yet to establish a method (i.e. steps to be followed) for measuring. In September 2016, a department liaison reported that the Office of the Chief Information Officer has developed an initial draft of an enterprise architecture value measurement plan. The department expects to complete the plan by December 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  5. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense has not yet addressed our recommendation. With respect to its business enterprise architecture, in August 2016, the department reported that it did not have a systematic methodology for measuring the value of its architecture. Department officials further stated that our July 2015 report "DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes" (GAO-15-627) concluded that the business enterprise architecture has yielded limited value. As a result of our report, the department reported that senior management has directed changes to the department's Business Enterprise Architecture program. We will continue to follow up on the department's efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  6. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Air Force has yet to implement this recommendation. As of September 2016, the department reported architecture-related outcomes, including the numbers of defense business systems decommissioned, to top agency officials. However, the department has not demonstrated that it has established an approach, including metrics and a documented method, to measure enterprise architecture outcomes. Because the Department of Defense has ongoing efforts that may assist in addressing this recommendation, we will continue to monitor the Air Force's efforts to implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force

  7. Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2016, the Department of the Navy has partially implemented this recommendation. Specifically, the department demonstrated that it had established a metric to measure the percentage of server-based systems and applications that are virtualized annually. However, as of August 2016, the department has yet to demonstrate that it documented the steps to be followed for measuring this virtualization. In October 2015, Navy developed a plan of actions and milestones to address elements in GAO's Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework, including the element focused on measuring and reporting enterprise architecture outcomes, by September 2017. We will continue to monitor the Navy's efforts to implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Navy

  8. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Army has taken steps to address this recommendation, but much more remains to be done. Specifically, since we reported in September 2012 that one of the department's three segment architectures had established a metric and a method to measure architecture outcomes, one of the remaining segments has established metrics, but it has not documented the steps to measure the metrics. The other remaining segment had yet to establish metrics and a method to measure architecture outcomes. Specifically, in December 2013, the Generating Force segment (now known as the Business Mission Area) developed an Army Business Management Strategy, which included metrics to measure the number of business systems retired over five years and cost savings and avoidance through use of the Army's business enterprise architecture. However, as of August 2016, the department has yet to demonstrate that it has documented the steps to measure the metrics. In addition, as of August 2016, the Operating Force segment has yet to demonstrate that it has established metrics and method to measure architecture outcomes. In September 2015, the Army developed a plan of actions and milestones to address elements of GAO's Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework, including the element focused on measuring and reporting enterprise architecture outcomes, by September 2017. We will continue to monitor the Army's efforts to implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Army

  9. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Energy has taken steps to implement this recommendation. Specifically, the department drafted a plan to establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes. According to the draft plan, the department plans to identify and baseline architecture metrics, such as cost savings/avoidance and legacy and high-risk information technology reduction, for fiscal year 2017 and develop an approach for monitoring and tracking them. The department reported that it expects to establish the approach by December 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  10. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency established an approach, including a documented method and metric to measure information technology procurement cost savings attributed to enterprise architecture. Specifically, the agency documented its approach for measuring fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes, which it used to measure fiscal year 2013 outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  11. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Interior has addressed our recommendation. In February 2014, the Department submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which established architecture outcome metrics. For example, the roadmap included a metric associated with measuring the cost savings or avoidance achieved through the use of architecture planning and analysis. The department also provided its methodology for measuring this outcome.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  12. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Justice has not taken sufficient steps to implement our recommendation. In June 2014, the department established metrics associated with the department's enterprise architecture (e.g., cost savings/avoidance gained through consolidated systems). However, as of September 2016, the department has not provided evidence that it has documented a method for measuring the metrics, or that it plans to do so.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  13. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Transportation has implemented our recommendation to establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes. The department's April 2013 Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Plan described enterprise architecture metrics that it planned to adopt, such as how the architecture program contributes to cost savings or avoidance. The department approved the metrics in September 2014. In November 2015, the department subsequently identified its method of measuring how the enterprise architecture program has contributed to cost savings or avoidance from consolidating or sharing services.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  14. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Labor has not demonstrated that it has implemented this recommendation. The department's March 2014 Enterprise Modernization Roadmap included outcome metrics, such as cost savings and avoidance through system consolidation. However, as of September 2016, the department had yet to document the steps to be followed for measuring architecture outcomes, or provided a specific plan, including a timeframe, to do so.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  15. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Treasury has not implemented our recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established enterprise architecture metrics, but that it had yet to establish a methodology for measuring its architecture outcomes. In June 2016, the department reported that it does not plan to establish an approach to measure architecture outcomes. Specifically, the department stated that it measures cost, schedule, and operational outcomes, but it does not attribute them to any practice, such as architecture.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  16. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Veterans Affairs has addressed the intent of this recommendation. In July 2015, it developed an Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Methodology and Implementation Plan. The plan includes a process for identifying, approving, monitoring, and evaluating architecture measures, and is based on a four-level performance measurement framework that takes into consideration the maturity of the enterprise architecture. For example, level 1 is focused on architecture completeness measures, while level 4 is focused on measuring the contribution of enterprise architecture to outcomes related to the department's strategic goals and objectives. As of July 2016, the department had yet to reach the fourth level of its performance measurement framework; however, department officials reported that as the enterprise architecture matures, it plans to measure architecture contributions to outcomes related to strategic goals and objectives.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  17. Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2016, the Department of State had yet to implement this recommendation. According to the department's Information Resource Management GAO liaison, the department's enterprise architecture program plans to document program goals, objectives, and performance outcome measures by September 2016 and to have performance data in the third quarter of fiscal year 2017.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  18. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: As of June 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency had not implemented this recommendation, and did not have a specific plan to do so. In March 2014, the agency submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with potential outcomes related to its enterprise architecture efforts, such as cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services. However, as of September 2015, it had not established steps to be followed for measuring architecture outcomes. Furthermore, its Enterprise Roadmap, updated in May 2015, no longer included metrics for measuring architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  19. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The General Services Administration has implemented this recommendation. Specifically, its February 2014 Enterprise Roadmap included a metric to measure cost savings and avoidance related to application rationalization. The agency also documented its method for measuring this metric.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  20. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken steps to implement this recommendation, but more remains to be done. In December 2013, NASA issued Enterprise Architecture Procedures, which state that key enterprise architecture metrics, such as cost savings and reduction of duplication, would be established. The procedures also state that NASA's Chief Architect will work with internal and external stakeholders to develop and mature metrics that provide information on enterprise architecture benefits and clearly illustrate progress or deficiencies in key areas. In July 2016, NASA's Chief Enterprise Architect stated that the agency expects to start measuring and reporting outcomes in the second half of fiscal year 2017, after it completes several tasks and the architecture matures.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  21. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The National Science Foundation has not implemented this recommendation. The agency reported in its May 2015 Enterprise Roadmap, which it submitted to the Office of Management and Budget, that it does not intend to establish metrics to measure architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  22. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Small Business Administration has not implemented our recommendation, or established a plan to do so. In April 2014 and May 2015, it submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which included metrics associated with the agency's enterprise architecture, such as cost savings gained from consolidating systems. However, as of July 2016, the agency had yet to document the steps to be followed for measuring architecture outcomes. SBA stated that desired progress for its enterprise architecture program going forward was expected to be limited because of a paucity of labor resources.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  23. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) implemented our recommendation. NRC issued an Information Technology/Information Management Enterprise Roadmap in May 2015, which included metrics to measure enterprise architecture benefits. Specifically, the roadmap included a metric to measure the level at which investments are meeting or are expected to meet intended benefits as a result of using enterprise architecture. The agency also demonstrated that it has established a documented methodology to measure this metric.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  24. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has yet to fully implement this recommendation. In September 2012, we reported that OPM had established a metric to measure enterprise architecture results and outcomes, but it had not established the steps needed to determine them. In October 2015, the agency's Office of Internal Oversight and Compliance stated that the agency was developing an approach for measuring architecture outcomes for implementation in fiscal year 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  25. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security has implemented this recommendation. The department has periodically measured and reported to the Office of Management and Budget outcomes attributed to its enterprise architecture, including cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  26. Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2016, the Department of Agriculture has not yet implemented this recommendation. Specifically, the department has yet to measure and report architecture outcomes because it has not developed an approach for measuring them. According to department officials, the department plans to establish an approach by December 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  27. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had reported an architecture outcome in its October 2011 Office of the Chief Information Officer Organization Performance report. Specifically, the department had reported that the ratio of development, modernization and enhancement (DME)spending to steady state spending had increased from 10 percent of total information technology (IT) spending in fiscal year 2011 to 13 percent of total IT spending in fiscal year 2012 as a result of its architecture activities. However, we also reported that the department had yet to periodically (i.e., repeatedly) measure and report the metric. Since then, the department reported to top agency officials at an August 2013 Investment Review Board meeting and in its May 2013 draft Enterprise Roadmap submission to the Office of Management and Budget that the department had achieved its DME spending target of 17 percent.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  28. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Commerce has yet to implement this recommendation. In November 2012, the department reported architecture outcomes, such as IT cost savings, to top agency officials. However, the department has yet to report architecture outcomes again to top agency officials or to the Office of Management and Budget. In September 2016, a department liaison reported that the Office of the Chief Information Officer has developed an initial draft enterprise architecture value measurement plan, which the department expects to complete by December 2016. In addition, the official reported that the department is in the process of developing a communication plan, by November 2016, to brief executive leadership on architecture value measurement on a regular basis.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  29. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense has yet to implement this recommendation. Specifically, as of August 2016, it had yet to demonstrate that it had measured and reported architecture value. With respect to its business enterprise architecture, in August 2016, the department reported that it did not have a systematic methodology for measuring the value of its architecture. Department officials further stated that our July 2015 report "DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes" (GAO-15-627) concluded that the business enterprise architecture has yielded limited value. As a result of our report, the department reported that senior management has directed changes to the department's Business Enterprise Architecture program. We will continue to follow up on the department's efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  30. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Air Force implemented a key element of this recommendation. Although the Air Force's method to ensure consistency was not fully documented, it did start reporting outcomes. Specifically, the department began periodically reporting architecture-related outcomes, including the numbers of defense business systems decommissioned, to top agency officials.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force

  31. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of the Navy has not yet implemented this recommendation. Specifically, the department has not demonstrated that it has measured and reported enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials. In October 2015, the department developed a plan of actions and milestones to address elements in GAO's Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework, including the element focused on measuring and reporting enterprise architecture results and outcomes by September 2017. We will continue to monitor the Navy's efforts to implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Navy

  32. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Army implemented a key element of this recommendation. Although the department had not fully documented a method to consistently measure outcomes, it did start reporting critically important information. Specifically, regarding the Generating Force segment (now known as the Business Mission Area), in December 2013, the Under Secretary of the Army issued an Army Business Management Strategy, which reported that 59 systems were retired in 2013 through use of enterprise architecture. In its May 2014 briefing to the Defense Business Council, the Army reported the number of business systems that were retired using enterprise architecture during 2014, and the cost savings associated with the retirements, demonstrating that the Business Mission Area had periodically reported architecture benefits to top agency officials.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense: Department of the Army

  33. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Energy has taken steps to address the recommendation. Specifically, it drafted a plan to establish enterprise architecture metrics for fiscal year 2017 and to periodically measure outcomes and report them to its Information Management Governance Board and key stakeholders. The department reported that it expects to establish its approach for measuring and reporting architecture outcomes by December 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  34. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency issued a report on fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes and benefits, and again in November 2013 on fiscal year 2013 architecture outcomes and benefits, to its Chief Information Officer. The outcomes were associated with consolidating hardware requirements and bundling purchases. In the agency's March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap submitted to the Office of Management and Budget, the agency's Chief Information Officer reported cost savings associated with its architecture efforts.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  35. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Interior has addressed this recommendation. Specifically, the department's Chief Financial Officer submitted the department's February 2014 Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which reported $8.7 million in fiscal year 2013 cost savings as a result of enterprise architecture efforts. In addition, the department measured and reported on four key metrics, including the number of legacy investments identified for retirement resulting from architecture planning and analysis. Specifically, the department measured and reported these metrics in December 2014 and May 2015, relative to baseline and targets, and reported them in its May 2015 Enterprise Roadmap, submitted to OMB. The Director of IT Planning and Portfolio Management stated that the department's Chief Information Officer has authority to commit resources and make changes to the architecture program, and reviewed the measurements before they were delivered to OMB.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  36. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Justice has not sufficiently implemented our recommendation. Although the department has reported cost savings through use of its enterprise architecture, the department did not provide documentation to support that the cost savings have been reliably measured.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  37. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Transportation has met the intent of our recommendation based on recent and planned future actions. In November 2015, the department measured how the architecture program has contributed to cost savings. Specifically, the Department's Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer approved a November 2015 Enterprise Architecture Metrics Report that reported about $2 million in architecture-related cost savings by measuring the cost of operating or maintaining applications, systems, or infrastructure components that were removed from service. The report also stated that the metric will be used as a baseline for measurement in future years.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  38. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Labor has not implemented this recommendation, or established a plan, including a timeframe, for doing so. Specifically, as of September 2016, the department has not demonstrated that it has measured enterprise architecture outcomes. The department reported that it plans to refine its approach for measuring and reporting architecture outcomes after a new Chief Enterprise Architect is selected and additional guidance from OMB is provided. However, it did not provide a timeframe for completing these activities.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  39. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Treasury has not implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had reported architecture outcomes; however the metrics had yet to be periodically measured and reported. In March 2014, the department submitted its Information Technology Enterprise Roadmap, which reported architecture outcomes, to the Office of Management and Budget. However, the department has not demonstrated that it reliably measured the outcomes. Specifically, the department has not documented steps to be followed to measure the outcomes. In June 2016, the department reported that it does not plan to establish an approach to measure and report architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  40. Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2016, the Department of Veterans Affairs had yet to measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes. However, the department developed an Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Methodology and Implementation Plan and department officials reported that as the enterprise architecture matures, it plans to measure architecture contributions to outcomes related to strategic goals and objectives.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  41. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State has yet to implement our recommendation. According to the department's Information Resource Management GAO liaison, the department's enterprise architecture program plans to document program goals, objectives, and performance outcome measures by September 2016, and expects performance data on the measures in the third quarter of fiscal year 2017.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  42. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: As of June 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency has not sufficiently implemented this recommendation. In March 2014, the agency submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which identified outcomes associated with its enterprise architecture efforts. For example, the agency reported cost savings achieved in fiscal year 2013 related to consolidating and sharing services. However, the agency did not demonstrate that it reliably measured the outcome. Specifically, the department has not established a documented method to measure architecture-related outcomes. More recently, according to its May 2015 Enterprise Roadmap, the agency no longer plans to measure architecture-related outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  43. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The General Services Administration (GSA) has implemented key aspects of this recommendation. Specifically, the agency reported cost avoidance of about $9 million in fiscal years 2015 through 2016 through the use of architecture analysis to identify and eliminate applications. In addition, GSA periodically reported these results to GSA review boards. For example, it reported these results in July 2014 and in February 2015. GSA also reported fiscal year 2015 cost savings/avoidance related to eliminating applications to the Office of Management and Budget.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  44. Status: Open

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has yet to implement this recommendation. According to the agency's December 2013 Enterprise Architecture Procedural Requirement, NASA's Chief Enterprise Architect will track enterprise architecture results and feedback in order to improve the enterprise architecture program. NASA's Chief Enterprise Architect stated in July 2016 that the agency expects to start measuring and reporting enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits in the second half of fiscal year 2017.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  45. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The National Science Foundation has not implemented this recommendation. According to its May 2015 Enterprise Roadmap, the agency does not intend to measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  46. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: As of September 2016, the Small Business Administration (SBA) has not implemented this recommendation, and has not developed a plan to do so. Specifically, it has not demonstrated that it has measured architecture outcomes. Furthermore SBA stated that desired progress for its enterprise architecture program going forward was expected to be limited because of a paucity of labor resources.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  47. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to address the intent of our recommendation. Specifically, in May 2015, it issued an Information Technology/Information Management Enterprise Roadmap which identified NRC enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits. The roadmap reported this information to NRC top agency officials and the Office of Management and Budget.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  48. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management has yet to implement this recommendation. In September 2012, we reported that agency officials stated that cost savings related to use of its enterprise architecture had been reported to the Chief Information Officer, but that officials had not provided documentation to support that the cost savings had been reliably measured. In October 2015, the agency's Office of Internal Oversight and Compliance stated that the agency was developing an approach for measuring architecture outcomes for implementation in fiscal year 2016.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  49. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Housing and Urban Development has fully implemented our recommendation. Specifically, since it reported outcomes for 2011, the department has measured architecture outcomes and reported them again to an agency executive committee, as well as to the Office of Management and Budget. For example, it reported progress in reducing the number of technology products that duplicate existing capabilities through use of its architecture. According to agency officials, the department's Chief Information Officer reviewed and approved the report in April 2013 and an executive committee reviewed the architecture outcomes before they were submitted to the Office of Management and Budget in May 2013.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  50. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Health and Human Services has not implemented this recommendation, or provided a plan to do so. As of September 2016, it had not demonstrated that it had measured architecture metrics that it had established in its April 2014 Enterprise Roadmap.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  51. Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has not sufficiently addressed our recommendation. In March 2013, the office required agencies to submit annually an Enterprise Roadmap, which was to include an appendix on enterprise architecture outcomes. To prepare the appendix, the office provided agencies a template to document architecture metrics and measurement methods. The template included examples of outcome metrics and a field where agencies are to document measurement methods. However, OMB did not provide details on the methods that agencies could use to measure architecture outcomes or required that agencies include the steps to be followed for measuring outcomes. Furthermore, as of July 2016, OMB is no longer requiring reports of enterprise architecture outcomes. According to OMB's Integrated Data Collection guidance, the Office of the Federal Chief Information Officer reviewed the information requested from agencies and reduced it in an effort to reduce the reporting burden on agencies.

    Recommendation: To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, and to assist agencies in measuring and reporting outcomes achieved through enterprise architecture, the Director of OMB should ensure that the planned December 2012 guidance for enterprise architecture value measurement and reporting includes (1) sufficient details on the method and metrics that agencies could use to measure their architecture program's value and (2) a requirement for agencies to include in their April 2013 enterprise roadmap submissions a measurement method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics, and report on the outcomes and benefits achieved through enterprise architecture.

    Agency Affected: Executive Office of the President: Office of Management and Budget

 

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