Nonpoint Source Water Pollution:
Greater Oversight and Additional Data Needed for Key EPA Water Program
GAO-12-335: Published: May 31, 2012. Publicly Released: Jul 2, 2012.
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What GAO Found
Under section 319 of the Clean Water Act, state-selected projects to reduce nonpoint source pollution have helped restore more than 350 impaired water bodies since 2000, but other projects have encountered significant challenges. According to GAO survey results, 28 percent of projects did not achieve all objectives originally identified in the project proposal (e.g., implementing the desired number of pollution reduction practices), while many that did so still faced considerable challenges. About half such challenges were beyond staff control (e.g., bad weather or staff turnover), but the other half were challenges that generally could have been identified and mitigated before projects were proposed and selected for funding, such as gaining access to desired properties. In one state, for example, $285,000 in section 319 funds was to subsidize the cost to homeowners of repairing damaged septic systems. Once the grant was awarded, however, one homeowner signed up to participate.
The Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) oversight and measures of effectiveness of states programs have not consistently ensured the selection of projects likely to yield measurable water quality outcomes. EPAs 10 regional offices varied widely in their review of states work plans, which describe projects states plan to undertake in the upcoming year, and project selection criteria, which identify eligibility parameters for receiving section 319 funds. For example, three regional offices reported reviewing annual work plans in depth and actively influencing the types of projects selected, while three others reported limited to no involvement in such reviews, instead deferring to states judgment on project feasibility and selection. EPA, however, has not provided its 10 regions with guidance on how to oversee the state programs. Also, EPAs primary measures of program effectiveness may not fully demonstrate program achievements. Section 319 requires states to report to EPA on two measures, including reductions in key pollutants. It does not limit EPA to these two measures, but the agency has chosen to use them as barometers of success for the section 319 program. States can demonstrate their achievements in additional waysways that may provide a more accurate picture of the overall health of targeted water bodies, such as the number and kind of living organisms in the water.
USDAs Environmental Quality Incentives Program is the key agricultural conservation program that can complement EPA efforts to reduce nonpoint source pollution, and its conservation practices have significantly reduced pollutants coming from agricultural land across the country. Notwithstanding its achievements, certain conservation practices can adversely affect water quality if not properly implementedfor example, by transporting polluted runoff from nutrient-laden fields into nearby water bodies. The agencys Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has procedures in place intended to ensure that its practices do not inadvertently harm water quality. During its field work, GAO identified a few instances where these procedures may not have been followed (including in watersheds where EPAs section 319 funds had been used), and therefore sought NRCS data to determine if they were isolated instances or indicative of a more prevalent issue. NRCS national level data, however, are not sufficiently detailed to identify whether appropriate measures are always in place to mitigate potential water quality impacts. According to NRCS, such data are instead located in its field offices and are not analyzed by the agency.
Why GAO Did This Study
Pollution from nonpoint sourcessuch as runoff from farms or construction sitesremains the leading cause of impairment to the nations waters. Under section 319 of the Clean Water Act, each year EPA provides grants to states to implement programs and fund projects that address nonpoint source pollution; the program received $165 million in fiscal year 2012. Section 319 includes minimum conditions that states must meet to receive grants. By regulation, EPAs 10 regional offices oversee state programs and are to ensure that states projects can be feasibly implemented. USDA also has programs to protect water resources.
GAO examined (1) states experiences in funding projects that address nonpoint source pollution, (2) the extent to which EPA oversees the section 319 program and measures its effectiveness, and (3) the extent to which key agricultural programs complement EPA efforts to control such pollution. GAO surveyed project managers, reviewed information from EPAs 10 regional offices on oversight of state programs, and analyzed USDA data.
What GAO Recommends
GAO recommends, among other things, that EPA provide section 319 oversight guidance to its regional offices and that USDA analyze data to determine if measures were taken to mitigate water quality impacts in section 319 project areas. EPA agreed with the recommendations, while USDA was silent on them. Both agencies commented on specific findings, which are addressed within the report.
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Recommendations for Executive Action
Comments: In 2013, EPA issued final "Nonpoint Source Program and Grants Guidelines for States and Territories." The guidelines lay out more specific expectations for EPA regional oversight. The guidelines require EPA regions to review some watershed-based plans in each state annually, for example. The new guidelines also require that half of a state's 319 allocation be spent on implementing watershed plans. EPA issued a memorandum to EPA regional managers highlighting their oversight responsibility. We will wait to evaluate how the implementation of this policy is working to strengthen regional oversight of state plans.
Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to strengthen EPA's implementation of its responsibilities under the Clean Water Act's section 319 nonpoint source pollution control program, the Administrator of EPA should provide specific guidance to EPA's 10 regional offices on how they are to fulfill their oversight responsibilities, such as how to review states' plans for project feasibility and criteria to ensure that funded projects have characteristics that reflect the greatest likelihood of effective implementation and tangible water quality results.
Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency
Comments: In 2013, EPA issued final "Nonpoint Source Program and Grants Guidelines for States and Territories." The guidelines require EPA regions to review some watershed-based plans in each state annually, for example. The new guidelines also require that half of a state's 319 allocation be spent on implementing watershed plans, which according to EPA, emphasizes overall health of targeted waterbodies. EPA is working with states on new measures for protecting unimpaired waters and other water quality protection actions. Until these efforts are complete, this recommendation will remain open.
Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to strengthen EPA's implementation of its responsibilities under the Clean Water Act's section 319 nonpoint source pollution control program, the Administrator of EPA should, in revising section 319 guidelines to states, and in addition to existing statutorily required reporting measures, emphasize measures that (1) more accurately reflect the overall health of targeted water bodies (e.g., the number, kind, and condition of living organisms) and (2) demonstrate states' focus on protecting high-quality water bodies, where appropriate.
Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency
Comments: NRCS cited several inaccuracies in the report, saying that its soil conservation practices do not decrease water quality. We stated that NRCS does not have the data to make this determination, which is why we made the recommendation that they analyze information from field offices to dtermine the extent to which appropriate mitigation measures are implemented when nutrient management plans are not in place. NRCS is undertaking a study and when it is done, we will assess the extent to which it assesses mitigation measures. Until then, we will leave this recommendation open.
Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to provide assurance that efforts to conserve soil resources do not work at cross-purposes with efforts to protect water quality, the Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Chief of the Natural Resources Conservation Service to analyze available information, and obtain necessary information from field offices, to determine the extent to which appropriate mitigation measures are implemented when nutrient management plans are not in use, particularly in watersheds where states are spending section 319 funds.
Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture