2011 Tax Filing:

Processing Gains, but Taxpayer Assistance Could Be Enhanced by More Self-Service Tools

GAO-12-176: Published: Dec 15, 2011. Publicly Released: Jan 17, 2012.


Additional Materials:


James R. White
(202) 512-9110


Office of Public Affairs
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What GAO Found

During the 2011 filing season the following occurred:

  • Electronic filing (e-filing) increased to nearly 80 percent of the 140 million individual returns filed. The benefits of e-filing include that it is more accurate, faster, and less expensive for IRS than processing returns filed on paper.
  • Due to the increase in e-filing, new systems, and IRS's performance in recent years, its refund timeliness measure and goal are outdated. The measure only relates to the 22 percent of returns filed on paper. IRS's goal is to issue refunds for paper-filed returns within 40 days. In 2012, IRS expects to issue most refunds within 4 to 6 days of processing a return (paper and e-filed), meaning the current goal does not reflect current performance and capabilities.
  • The percent of callers seeking live assistance who receive it remained much lower than in 2007 and the average wait time for callers continued to increase. Providing live telephone assistance is expensive. However, IRS can shift some assistor-answered calls to less costly tools. Two such opportunities include creating self-service phone lines for taxpayers seeking to identify the (1) status of their amended return--a source of high call volume--and (2) location of a Taxpayer Assistance Center (TAC) or Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) site, where IRS employees and volunteers prepare returns, respectively. IRS officials expect the benefits of the amended return line to exceed the costs, but have not studied the costs and benefits of adding a TAC/VITA locator line.

The use of IRS's website is growing, particularly the number of searches, which IRS officials attribute, in part, to taxpayers having difficulties locating information. Having an easily searchable website is important for IRS because it reduces costly phone calls. IRS has begun spending a planned $320 million on its website over 10 years. However, IRS's initial strategy for providing new self-service tools online does not include allowing taxpayers to access account information and is missing fundamental elements, including a justification for new services and time frames. Doing so would provide Congress and taxpayers with a better understanding of the online services IRS plans to provide with its significant investment on its website.

Why GAO Did This Study

The tax filing season is an enormous undertaking in which the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) processes millions of tax returns, issues billions of dollars in refunds to taxpayers, corrects taxpayers' errors, and provides service to millions of taxpayers through telephones, website, and face-to-face assistance. Among other things, GAO was asked to assess (1) IRS's performance processing returns and issuing refunds, and providing telephone assistance, and (2) IRS's plans to expand self-service options on its website. To conduct the analyses, GAO obtained and compared data from 2007 through 2011, reviewed IRS documents, interviewed IRS officials, observed IRS operations, and interviewed tax-industry experts, including from tax preparation firms.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that IRS develop a new refund timeliness performance measure to better reflect current capabilities, create an automated telephone line for taxpayers seeking information about amended returns unless IRS has a convincing costbenefit analysis suggesting the costs exceed the benefits, assess the costs and benefits of automating a TAC/VITA locator line, and finalize a strategy for determining which self-service tools to provide on its website.

IRS agreed with three of GAO's recommendations, but said that resources are not available to automate the TAC/VITA line. GAO believes a review of the costs and benefits would better inform IRS decisions about how to allocate scarce resources.

For more information, contact Jim White at (202) 512-9110 or whitej@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: As of November 2015, IRS had determined that it will not develop a new measure for refund timeliness. IRS stated that three actions eliminated the need to change the measure: (1) implementation of the Customer Account Data Engine 2 daily processing, (2) promotion of electronic filing, and (3) newly implemented filters for identity theft. Since we made our recommendation, the percent of returns processed electronically has increased from 78 percent to 86 percent. We continue to reiterate to IRS officials that the agency should develop a new refund timeliness measure and goal to more fully monitor opportunities to improve how efficiently IRS processes returns and issues refunds.

    Recommendation: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should develop a new refund timeliness measure and goal to more appropriately reflect current capabilities.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury: Internal Revenue Service

  2. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: As of August 2013, IRS has developed an automated telephone line that taxpayers can call to determine whether IRS has received an amended return and identify the amount of time that it generally takes for IRS to process the return. IRS also developed an online tool that provides the same information.

    Recommendation: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should offer an automated telephone line that gives taxpayers the status of their amended tax return, unless IRS has a convincing cost-benefit analysis to suggest that the costs exceed the benefits.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury: Internal Revenue Service

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On January 28, 2012, IRS launched the online VITA Site Locator application which provides timely information on the thousands of tax sites. However, as of August 2013, IRS officials said that after evaluating the resources needed to provide an automated telephone line with similar information, they believe the costs of doing so would currently be prohibitive.

    Recommendation: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should assess the costs and benefits of automating the TAC/VITA location telephone lines, and automate these lines if the benefits exceed the costs.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury: Internal Revenue Service

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2015, IRS officials reported that IRS's Service on Demand (SOD) strategy is the defined Internet strategy for IRS, which is intended to better meet taxpayers' needs and preferences for interacting with IRS by providing self-service options for taxpayers and improving customer service. IRS identified the implementation of online self-service tools as 1 of 6 programs supporting SOD. IRS officials said that one of these - the online account access feature - will allow taxpayers to view balances due, make a payment, view payment status and history, and view account transcripts. According to IRS, in June 2015, it completed a pilot that allows taxpayers to view their balance due and is aiming to make the online account access feature available to the public in 2016. IRS also has developed a prioritized list of additional account features it aims to provide by fiscal year 2017, and laid out a high-level timeline for implementing the foundational capabilities and features for the online account. IRS also plans to update the strategy and roadmap for developing SOD at least once a year depending on the availability of resources. However, as of July 2015, IRS has not yet defined specific business cases for developing and implementing new online services, detailed analyses of costs and benefits, or performance metrics for such services that would be implemented through SOD.

    Recommendation: The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should complete an Internet strategy that (1) provides a justification for the implementation of online self-service tools and includes an assessment of providing online self-service tools that allow taxpayers to access and update elements of their account online; (2) acknowledges the cost and benefits to taxpayers of new online services; (3) sets the time frame for when the online service would be created and available for taxpayer use; and (4) includes a plan to update the strategy periodically.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury: Internal Revenue Service


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