Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Program:
Case Studies Show Fraud and Abuse Allowed Ineligible Firms to Obtain Millions of Dollars in Contracts
GAO-10-255T: Published: Nov 19, 2009. Publicly Released: Nov 19, 2009.
The Small Business Administration (SBA), which, along with federal procuring activities, administers the Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) program, reported in fiscal year 2008 that $6.5 billion in federal contracts were awarded to firms who self-certified themselves as SDVOSBs. Government contracts to SDVOSBs accounted for only 1.5 percent of all government contract dollars paid in fiscal year 2008. Since the SDVOSB program began, the government has not met its annual mandated goal of 3 percent. In addition to SBA's statutory authority over administration of the SDVOSB program, several other government agencies have separate authority over issues related to the SDVOSB program. The Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act requires the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to maintain a database of SDVOSBs and Veteran-Owned Small Businesses (VOSB) so contractor eligibility can be verified on VA SDVOSB and VOSB contracts. In addition, The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), within the Office of Management and Budget, provides overall direction for governmentwide procurement policies, regulations, and procedures and to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the acquisition processes. The Office's primary focus is on the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), the governmentwide regulation governing agency acquisitions of goods and services, including SDVOSB set-aside and sole-source contract actions.
Fraud and abuse in the SDVOSB program allowed ineligible firms to improperly receive millions of dollars in set-aside and sole-source SDVOSB contracts, potentially denying legitimate service-disabled veterans and their firms the benefits of this program. We identified 10 case-study examples of firms that did not meet SDVOSB program eligibility requirements, which received approximately $100 million in SDVOSB contracts, and over $300 million in additional 8(a), HUBZone, and non-SDVOSB federal government contracts. SBA found four of the firms ineligible for the SDVOSB program through the agency's bid protest process. Nevertheless, because there are no requirements to terminate contracts when firms are found ineligible, several contracting agencies allowed the ineligible firms to continue their work. For example, bid-protest decisions do not always result in the termination of contracts with ineligible firms, even when termination costs would be minimal in cases where contract work had not begun. As some of our case studies show, even when firms are found ineligible to receive a contract, they can still retain it because current regulations do not require that the contracting agency terminate the contract.In addition, we identified six other case-study firms that were not eligible for the SDVOSB program. The misrepresentations case-study firms made included a firm whose owner was not a service-disabled veteran, a serviced-disabled veteran who did not control the firm's day-to-day operations, a service-disabled veteran who was a full-time contract federal employee at MacDill Air Force Base, and firms that served as a "pass-through" for large and sometimes foreign-based corporations. In the case of a pass-through, a firm or joint venture lists a service-disabled veteran as the majority owner, but contrary to program requirements, all work is performed and managed by a non-service-disabled person or a separate firm. Federal regulations set requirements for a small business to qualify as an SDVOSB. Specifically, SDVOSB eligibility regulations mandate that a firm must be a small business and at least 51 percent-owned by one or more service-disabled veterans who control the management and daily business operations of the firm. The lack of effective fraud-prevention controls by SBA and agencies awarding contracts allowed these ineligible firms to receive approximately $100 million of sole-source or set-aside SDVOSB contracts over the last several years. The SDVOSB program is essentially an eligibility-based program. However, neither the SBA, except when responding to a protest, nor contracting officials are currently verifying the eligibility of firms claiming to be SDVOSBs. For example, currently the SBA and contracting agencies do not have a process in place to access the VA service-disabled veteran's database listing individuals that are valid service-disabled veterans. In addition, contracting officers are not required to validate that a firm's owner is a service-disabled veteran prior to award. Unlike other small business contracting programs, such as the HUBZone and 8(a) programs, there also are no documentation submissions to substantiate eligibility for the program or application process associated with the SDVOSB program. This lack of controls substantially increases the risk for fraud and abuse in the SDVOSB program. The only process in place to detect fraud in the SDVOSB program involves a formal bid protest process at the SBA, whereby interested parties to a contract award can protest if they feel a firm misrepresented its small business size or SDVOSB eligibility in its bid submission. However, as shown by our case studies, this self-policing process does not prevent ineligible firms from receiving SDVOSB contracts.