VA Health Care:
Facilities Have Taken Action to Provide Language Access Services and Culturally Appropriate Care to a Diverse Veteran Population
GAO-08-535, May 28, 2008
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) faces challenges in bridging language and cultural barriers as it seeks to provide quality health care services to an increasingly diverse veteran population in terms of race, ethnicity, sex, and age. To meet the needs of veterans with limited English proficiency (LEP), VA issued an LEP Directive that provides guidance for medical centers in assessing language needs and, if needed, developing language access services designed to ensure effective communication between English-speaking providers and those with LEP. In addition, VA is also challenged to deliver health care services in ways that are culturally appropriate--that is, respectful of and responsive to the cultural values of a diverse veteran population. In light of these challenges, GAO was asked to discuss the (1) actions VA has taken to implement its LEP Directive and the status of veterans' utilization of language access services, and (2) efforts VA has made to provide culturally appropriate health care services. GAO reviewed VA's policies and the LEP Directive, interviewed VA officials and reviewed efforts by 6 VA medical centers and 10 other VA facilities to implement VA's LEP Directive and to provide culturally appropriate health care services. GAO also reviewed documents from 17 other VA medical centers related to implementation of the LEP Directive.
VA reported that as of June 2007, all of its medical centers had taken action to implement the guidance in VA's LEP Directive. Specifically, medical center officials told VA that they had assessed the language needs of their veteran service populations, and, if necessary, developed language assistance policies and offered language access services, including providing translated materials and interpretation services. The VA medical centers GAO reviewed provided translated materials to meet the various language needs of their veteran service populations and offered interpretation services as well. For example, VA medical centers maintained a list of bilingual medical center staff who can provide interpretation services during a clinical encounter between a provider and a veteran with LEP. In addition, five of the six VA medical centers GAO reviewed can access telephone interpretation services that are provided through a contract to help ensure that medical staff can communicate with veterans and their families with LEP. According to officials at medical centers GAO reviewed, utilization of language access services is low. However, VA officials told GAO that they expect the demand for language access services to grow as the increasingly diverse military servicemember population transitions to veteran status. VA medical centers are addressing the need for culturally appropriate health care services through staff training and tailoring health care services. Medical centers provide training for medical center staff to facilitate the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services including an annual mandatory training on the health care needs of veterans in various age groups. VA medical centers and other VA facilities GAO reviewed have implemented a variety of measures to meet the needs of their culturally diverse veteran populations. For example, three VA facilities GAO reviewed offer spiritual services, such as the use of medicine men and traditional healing rituals, in order to meet the needs of Native American veterans. Also, VA has minority veterans program coordinators at each medical center to identify barriers to health care for minorities and advise medical center officials in developing services to make health care more accessible and culturally appropriate for minority veteran populations. VA medical centers GAO reviewed have also initiated outreach efforts to promote the availability of culturally appropriate care. In commenting on a draft of this report, VA stated that it agreed with the information presented as it pertained to VA.