Enterprise Architecture:

Leadership Remains Key to Establishing and Leveraging Architectures for Organizational Transformation

GAO-06-831: Published: Aug 14, 2006. Publicly Released: Sep 12, 2006.

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A well-defined enterprise architecture is an essential tool for leveraging information technology (IT) to transform business and mission operations. GAO's experience has shown that attempting to modernize and evolve IT environments without an architecture to guide and constrain investments results in operations and systems that are duplicative, not well integrated, costly to maintain, and ineffective in supporting mission goals. In light of the importance of enterprise architectures, GAO developed a five stage architecture management maturity framework that defines what needs to be done to effectively manage an architecture program. Under GAO's framework, a fully mature architecture program is one that satisfies all elements of all stages of the framework. As agreed, GAO's objective was to determine the status of major federal department and agency enterprise architecture efforts.

The state of the enterprise architecture programs at the 27 major federal departments and agencies is mixed, with several having very immature programs, several having more mature programs, and most being somewhere in between. Collectively, the majority of these architecture efforts can be viewed as a work-in-progress with much remaining to be accomplished before the federal government as a whole fully realizes their transformational value. More specifically, seven architecture programs have advanced beyond the initial stage of the GAO framework, meaning that they have fully satisfied all core elements associated with the framework's second stage (establishing the management foundation for developing, using, and maintaining the architecture). Of these seven, three have also fully satisfied all the core elements associated with the third stage (developing the architecture). None have fully satisfied all of the core elements associated with the fourth (completing the architecture) and fifth (leveraging the architecture for organizational change) stages. Nevertheless, most have fully satisfied a number of the core elements across the stages higher than the stage in which they have met all core elements, with all 27 collectively satisfying about 80, 78, 61, and 52 percent of the stage two through five core elements, respectively. Further, most have partially satisfied additional elements across all the stages, and seven need to fully satisfy five or fewer elements to achieve the fifth stage. The key to these departments and agencies building upon their current status, and ultimately realizing the benefits that they cited architectures providing, is sustained executive leadership, as virtually all the challenges that they reported can be addressed by such leadership. Examples of the challenges are organizational parochialism and cultural resistance, adequate resources (human capital and funding), and top management understanding; examples of benefits cited are better information sharing, consolidation, improved productivity, and reduced costs.

Status Legend:

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  • Review Pending-GAO has not yet assessed implementation status.
  • Open-Actions to satisfy the intent of the recommendation have not been taken or are being planned, or actions that partially satisfy the intent of the recommendation have been taken.
  • Closed-implemented-Actions that satisfy the intent of the recommendation have been taken.
  • Closed-not implemented-While the intent of the recommendation has not been satisfied, time or circumstances have rendered the recommendation invalid.
    • Review Pending
    • Open
    • Closed - implemented
    • Closed - not implemented

    Recommendations for Executive Action

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of the Treasury has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has conducted an independent verification and validation of its enterprise architecture products and management processes; has developed enterprise architecture plans that include metrics to measure enterprise architecture progress, quality, compliance, and return on investment; is measuring progress against its enterprise architecture plans; and is measuring and reporting on the quality of enterprise architecture products. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Transportation has not addressed the majority of core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. Specifically, while the department is measuring and reporting information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture, it is not measuring and reporting return on its enterprise architecture investment. In addition, the current version of the department's enterprise architecture has not been approved by its department head or formal designee. According to the department's chief architect, the department is establishing new enterprise architecture governance processes that will address enterprise architecture program value and updated approval processes.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the United States Department of Agriculture has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department is measuring and reporting progress against enterprise architecture plans, ensuring that its enterprise architecture products are under configuration management, and ensuring that its enterprise architecture products and management processes undergo independent verification and validation. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the National Science Foundation has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has developed its enterprise architecture using a framework, methodology, and automated tool; established a written and approved policy for enterprise architecture development and maintenance; and subjected its enterprise architecture products and management processes to independent verification and validation. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Energy has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has developed a written and approved organization policy for enterprise architecture development; developed and implemented plans to measure and report enterprise architecture return on investment; and ensured that its information technology investments comply with the enterprise architecture. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Small Business Administration has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the agency's enterprise architecture plans call for developing metrics to measure enterprise architecture return on investment; its enterprise architecture products are under configuration management; and progress against its enterprise architecture plans is measured and reported. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the U.S. Agency for International Development has not addressed the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. Specifically, since 2006, agency officials have not provided sufficient documentation to validate satisfaction of any framework elements that we previously reported as not satisfied.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: For its Business Enterprise Architecture, the Department of Defense has satisfied all the of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has developed enterprise architecture plans that include metrics to measure enterprise architecture progress, quality, compliance, and return on investment and has a process and tool in place to gauge information technology investments' compliance with the enterprise architecture. However, the extent to which the military service architecture programs satisfy the core elements that we reported as having not been satisfied is not clear. Accordingly, we have ongoing work to determine the extent to which the military services have satisfied the core elements in an update version of our enterprise architecture management maturity framework. As a result, we are closing this recommendation as not implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has taken additional steps to largely satisfy the remaining core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the NASA Strategy and Investment Board, established on September 14, 2007 and approved on March 11, 2008, includes agency executives from across the organization (e.g., NASA Associate and Deputy Administrators) and is responsible for developing, maintaining, and using the architecture. In addition, NASA enterprise architecture now describes its security policy and procedures, organizations accountable for security, enterprise security services, security products, security initiatives and schedules, and program-level security reviews.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Social Security Administration has not addressed the majority of core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. Specifically, while the agency is measuring and reporting information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture, it is not measuring and reporting return on its enterprise architecture investment and has not defined a methodology for developing, maintaining, and validating its enterprise architecture products. According to agency officials, the agency is awaiting further guidance from the Office of Management and Budget before it invests in further developing methods and mechanisms for measuring return on EA investment.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Office of Personnel Management has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the agency is measuring and reporting progress against enterprise architecture plans. As a result, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Veterans Affairs has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has established an enterprisewide committee responsible for directing, overseeing, and approving the enterprise architecture; established a process to manage enterprise architecture change; and placed its enterprise architecture products under configuration management. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the agency has developed its enterprise architecture using a framework, methodology, and automated tool; subjected its enterprise architecture products and management processes to independent verification and validation; and defined a process to manage changes to its enterprise architecture products. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Commerce has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has established a written and approved organization policy for information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture and is ensuring that its information technology investments comply with its enterprise architecture. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Education has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has established a committee or group representing the enterprise that is responsible for directing, overseeing, and approving its enterprise architecture and is measuring and reporting return on its enterprise architecture investment. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Homeland Security has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department's enterprise architecture products describe its current environment, future environment, and sequencing plan for transitioning from its current to its future environment; it measures and reports return on enterprise architecture investment; and it has subjected its enterprise architecture products to validation and verification. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since August 2006, the Department of the Interior has fully satisfied the remaining core element outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we reported as not satisfied. Specifically, in August and September 2007, the department provided us with a written certification that demonstrated the independence of its verification and validation contractor.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the General Services Administration has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the agency's enterprise architecture plans call for its business, performance, information/data, application/service, and technology descriptions to address security; its enterprise architecture products and management processes have been subjected to independent verification and validation; and its enterprise architecture is an integral component of its information technology investment management process. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of State has not addressed the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. Specifically, since 2006, department officials have not provided sufficient documentation to validate satisfaction of any framework elements that we previously reported as not satisfied. In 2010, department officials stated further actions on the architecture program will be determined after the department completes its Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review in September 2010.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the agency has established a written and approved policy for enterprise architecture development and maintenance, is measuring and reporting information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture, and has developed plans that call for metrics to measure enterprise architecture progress, quality, compliance, and return on investment. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Labor has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department is ensuring that return on its enterprise architecture investment is measured and reported, and that information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture is measured and reported. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Health and Human Services has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department has established a committee or group representing the enterprise that is responsible for directing, overseeing, and approving the enterprise architecture; included in its enterprise architecture products that describe its 'as-is' environment, 'to-be' environment, and a sequencing plan; and had its enterprise architecture approved by its Chief Information Officer. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, the Department of Justice has satisfied the majority of the core elements outlined in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework that we previously reported as not satisfied. For example, the department is measuring and reporting enterprise architecture product quality, ensuring that its information technology investments comply with its enterprise architecture, ensuring that information technology investment compliance with its enterprise architecture is measured and reported, and it has subjected its management processes to independent verification and validation. As a result of these collective actions, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

    Recommendation: To assist the 27 major departments and agencies in addressing enterprise architecture challenges, managing their architecture programs, and realizing architecture benefits, the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Small Business Administration, and U.S. Agency for International Development; the Attorney General; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management; and the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs should ensure that their respective enterprise architecture programs develop and implement plans for fully satisfying each of the conditions in our enterprise architecture management maturity framework.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

    Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Since 2006, our recommendation to the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been superseded by our recommendations made to the department in 2009 (GAO-09-675). Specifically, to address weaknesses found in the department's segment architectures in 2009, we recommended that the department's Deputy Secretary (1) report to the Secretary on actions planned to address the unsatisfied core elements and (2) develop a plan for reexamining segment priorities and updating and developing segment architectures in accordance with these priorities and relevant guidance. As a result of the more recent recommendations, we consider this recommendation to be largely implemented.

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