Intellectual Property:

Initial Observations on the STOP Initiative and U.S. Border Efforts to Reduce Piracy

GAO-06-1004T: Published: Jul 26, 2006. Publicly Released: Jul 26, 2006.

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Loren Yager
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U.S. goods are subject to substantial counterfeiting and piracy, creating health and safety hazards for consumers, damaging victimized companies, and threatening the U.S. economy. In 2004, the Bush administration launched the Strategy for Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP)--a multi-agency effort to better protect intellectual property (IP) by combating piracy and counterfeiting. This testimony, based on a prior GAO report as well as from observations from on-going work, describes (1) the range and effectiveness of multi-agency efforts on IP protection preceding STOP, (2) initial observations on the organization and efforts of STOP, and (3) initial observations on the efforts of U.S. agencies to prevent counterfeit and pirated goods from entering the United States, which relate to one of STOP's goals.

STOP is the most recent in a number of efforts to coordinate interagency activity targeted at intellectual property (IP) protection. Some of these efforts have been effective and others less so. For example, the Special 301 process--the U.S. Trade Representative's process for identifying foreign countries that lack adequate IP protection--has been seen as effective because it compiles input from multiple agencies and serves to identify IP issues of concern in particular countries. Other interagency efforts, such as the National Intellectual Property Law Enforcement Coordination Council (NIPLECC), are viewed as being less effective because little has been produced beyond summarizing agencies' actions in the IP arena. While STOP has energized IP protection and enforcement efforts domestically and abroad, our initial work indicates that its long-term role is uncertain. STOP has been successful in fostering coordination, such as reaching out to foreign governments and private sector groups. Private sector views on STOP were generally positive; however, some stated that it emphasizes IP protection and enforcement efforts that would have occurred regardless of STOP's existence. STOP's lack of permanent status and accountability mechanisms pose challenges for its long-term impact and Congressional oversight. STOP faces challenges in meeting some of its objectives, such as increasing efforts to seize counterfeit goods at the border--an effort for which the Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Immigration and Customs Enforcement are responsible. CBP has certain steps underway, but our initial work indicates that resources for IP enforcement at certain ports have declined as attention has shifted to national security concerns. In addition, prior GAO work found internal control weaknesses in an import mechanism through which a significant portion of imports flow, and which has been used to smuggle counterfeit goods.

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