Appropriations Law Training
GAO’s Principles of Appropriations Law course
acquaints participants with the purposes and
principles of federal fiscal law. It blends lecture,
case studies, and student participation in a way
that engages and challenges participants, while
maximizing the exchange of both practical and
Appropriations Law Decisions
GAO’s Office of General Counsel issues
decisions and opinions on appropriations
Learn more >
GAO's Principles of Appropriations Law Course
GAO attorneys teach the Principles of Appropriations Law (PAL) course at (1) GAO headquarters for two open enrollment classes
each fiscal year and (2) other federal agencies for contracted group classes about a dozen times each fiscal
year. The class is two and a half days; class runs from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. on days 1 and 2 and from 8:30 a.m.
to 12 p.m. on day 3. Participants receive a manual with course notes and exercises. A course outline is below.
Open enrollment training is held at the GAO building. These classes are held primarily for GAO employees;
however, we allot 10 to 15 seats per class for non-GAO federal participants. If the open enrollment courses
are full, you can request to be placed on the waiting list.
We also schedule group training for federal agencies upon request. These classes are based on instructor
availability. Recent attendees include staff from the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security,
Housing and Urban Development; the Library of Congress; U.S. Marshals Service; and the
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Please e-mail PALCourse@gao.gov to request a seat in an open enrollment course or to request a group course. Please include your desired class date and contact information in your e-mail. We will let you know if we can accommodate the request.
The cost for an individual seat in an open enrollment course is $450. The cost for groups is $4,000 (and additional costs apply for groups taught outside the Washington, D.C. area).
Agencies must complete GAO’s interagency agreement form. Your agency will receive billing instructions after course completion. Tuition for the course is paid through the IPAC (wire transfer) system or Pay.gov (if paying by credit card). PLEASE NOTE THAT ALL PAYMENT PROCESSING WILL BE COMPLETED AFTER THE TRAINING. Please do not attempt to pay for training in advance through the IPAC system or Pay.gov, as these payments will be returned to your agency.
Open Enrollment Schedule
Our FY 2016 classes are full. We will post the FY 2017 class dates soon. You can request a seat in the FY 2017 classes by emailing PALCourse@gao.gov as of October 1, 2016.
Introduction to Appropriations Law
- Constitution and Major Statutes
- Annual Budget and Appropriations Process
- Budget Execution and Control
- Apportionment and Allotment
- Obligating and Disbursing Funds
- Terminology and Classification
- Statutory Construction
Availability of Appropriations: Purpose
- Purpose Three-Step Analysis
- Necessary Expense Rule
- Statutory Purpose Restrictions
- Other Available Appropriations
Availability of Appropriations: Amount
- Antideficiency Act: Provisions, Exceptions, Sanctions and Applications
- Rules Against Augmentation, and the Miscellaneous Receipts Act
Availability of Appropriations: Time
- General Rule
- Bona Fide Needs Rule
- Prohibition on Advanced Payments
- Account Closing Law
- Obligation of Appropriations
- Interagency Transactions