Understanding Climate Change
Congressional and public interest in climate change has grown over the past 20 years. Over this period, several issues have emerged, particularly in the areas of emissions data and science policy.
Certain gases in Earths atmospherecarbon dioxide (CO2) and methaneare known as greenhouse gases because they trap energy from the sun that would otherwise escape Earths atmosphere. In the atmosphere, greenhouse gases absorb and reemit radiation causing a greenhouse effect, which, in turn, causes a warming of Earths atmosphere. Table 1 shows the current and projected impacts of climate change in the United States.
Various human and natural activities emit greenhouse gases, with the production and burning of fossil fuels for energy contributing around two-thirds of man-made global emissions in 2005. CO2 is the key greenhouse gas affected by human activity, accounting for about three-quarters of global emissions in 2005. Other greenhouse gases includein order of their prevalence by volumemethane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). The interactive feature below illustrates Earths carbon cycle, which regulates the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and land-based and oceanic sinks.
Depiction of the Global Carbon Cycle Changes Over Time
Global temperature increases may contribute to a gradual change in the balance of energy flowing into and away from Earths surface. Earths climate system is driven by energy from the sun and is maintained by complex interactions among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the reflectivity of Earths surface, among other factors. Earths system maintains a constant average temperature only if the same amount of energy leaves the system as enters it. If more energy enters than leaves, the difference manifests as a temperature increase. The interactive feature below shows current estimates of the equilibrium transfer of energy.
Figure 2: Global Average Energy Budget of Earth's Atmosphere
GAO-11-800, Aug 31, 2011
GAO-10-818, Jul 30, 2010
GAO-10-456, Apr 27, 2010
Climate Change Science
GAO-09-423T, Feb 24, 2009